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# My investigation is to find out the rate of which heat transfer happens. Heat transfer is a process in which energy in the form of heat energy is exchanged between materials that are at a different temperature.

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Introduction

Candidate Number-9006 Centre Number-41167 Year 10 GCSE Science Coursework Physics- Heat Investigation Aim: My investigation is to find out the rate of which heat transfer happens. Heat transfer is a process in which energy in the form of heat energy is exchanged between materials that are at a different temperature. Heat is generally transferred by conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation. All of these processes can all happen simultaneously but it is likely that one will give the greater heat exchange. Plan: These are the measurements that I intend to make: * Measure the temperature every minute for 5 minutes * Record the temperature of the substance before being used and then keep this as starting temperature * Record the temperature every minute * Make sure that all substances are 100cm3 * To test different substance and different containers Variables: These are factors that may affect how long a substance will maintain its temperature. * Size of Container * Different Materials * Different Substances * Surface Area * Thickness and Shape of Container * Colour of Container After considering the above variables and the affect they may have on maintaining the heat of the liquid, I have decided that I will look at each variable individually as if I change two variables at once I will not be able to tell which of the variables had the effect on the outcome-it may even be both! Independent Variable: * Volume of Substance- 100cm3 I have decided to keep volume of substance as my independent variable (variable that I will keep the same throughout investigation) as this will also certify that this investigation is that of a fair test. Fair Test: To ensure that my investigation is a fair test I will follow the below list: * If I were to change two variables I would carry out the same test more that once. This is to ensure a fair test. ...read more.

Middle

Different types of insulators will affect the result in different ways i.e. Tin foil will quicken heat loss as it is a metal which is a better conductor. But if the tin foil is double layer then the it may have the opposite effect as the first layer will conduct the heat out but the second layer will reflect the heat back in as it is a shiny surface. What the container made of: The material of the container could change the rate of heat loss. If it is made from polystyrene it will not allow much heat to pass through it is a different thickness to other materials, also it depends on the density of the actual container. Where as if it is made of plastic, it may allow more heat transfer to occur. If the inside of the container is painted it will make a difference. If it is painted silver then it reflect some heat back to the water, but if it is painted black it will absorb the heat and this will make the heat loss greater. Starting temperature of the water: If the starting temperature is very high then more heat will escape quickly so this must be kept the same at all times to make sure test is fair. I have decided that I will keep my starting temperature at 80oC * Also the things that I have found out throughout my research will also affect my results. So a lot of the experiment will depend on the container and it properties i.e. surface are, thickness, material etc. So I think that the metal container will keep the heat in longer than the plastic container, the bigger the container the, or bigger surface area the more heat loss than a smaller container/ surface area. The formula I will be using to find out the surface area is r2. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is like in the vacuum flask as it acts like the silver liner and it reflects the heat back in to the container. Lastly I expected the thickness to change the amount of heat loss but I did not expect it to affect the heat loss to such an extent. The thicker the container the less heat loss whereas a thinner container lets a lot of heat escape. The thickness of the container works as another insulator so slows down the rate of heat loss. As I stated at the beginning of my experiment the four main factors that would affect my experiment were * Convection * Conduction * Evaporation * Radiation Evaluation: My results are reliable because I used a thermometer accurate to 1 oC. If I were to repeat this experiment again I would have used a digital thermometer as the rate of accuracy is higher than by taking the measurements manually. I would also use a boss stand and clamp which would hold the thermometer in the same place and would not touch the sides of the container, if this had happened the temperature would not have been accurate enough as it is taking the temperature of the container not of the substance. I could have done my experiment in controlled conditions if possible to make my results even more reliable. My evidence supports my conclusion. I could repeat my experiment and taken repeat results for water and coffee as separate results to increase accuracy. Thermometer should not touch the glass; otherwise it is measuring the temperature of the glass, not the water. Stirring the water would allow an average temperature to be recorded, not a local temperature. I made sure that my experiment was safe, fair and organised which would decrease the possibility of human error. My results are as accurate as possible, with out human error. Also my results are as accurate as possible with a manual thermometer and stopwatch. ?? ?? ?? ?? Marianne Bishara Science Investigation Mr Boyd ...read more.

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