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Na₂S₂O ₃ + 2HCl 2NaCl + SO₂ + H₂O + S

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Introduction Na2S2O3 + 2HCl --> 2NaCl + SO2 + H2O + S I will carry out two experiments, one changing the temperature (while everything else remains constant) and one varying the concentration (while keeping everything else constant). Both the Sodium Thiosulphate and the Hydrochloric acid are soluble in water, so the concentration of either can be changed. However I have chosen to vary the Sodium Thiosulphate. While the temperature is constant, room temperature will be used for the temperature of the Sodium Thiosulphate as it more practical and will not need to be monitored. When the temperature is being varied a Bunsen burner will be used to heat up the Sodium Thiosulphate to the necessary temperature. I decided which temperatures and concentrations to use during my preliminary experiment: * 20cm� Hydrochloric Acid (Amount of acid will be fixed) Sodium Thiosulphate (cm�) Water (cm�) Concentration (molar) 25 cm� 0 cm� 1.5 molar 20 cm� 5 cm� 1.2 molar 15 cm� 10 cm� 0.9 molar 10 cm� 15 cm� 0.6 molar 5 cm� 20 cm� 0.3 molar 2.5 cm� 22.5 cm� 0.15 molar * 20-70�C Temperature. (These temperatures will increase by 10�C) Using my preliminary experiments I decided on using the following apparatus: 1 Thermometer 1 Beaker 2 Measuring Cylinders 1 Conical Flask 1 Stopwatch 1 Bunsen Burner 1 Tripod 1 Gauze 1 Heatproof Mat 1 X Board 1 Pair of ...read more.


As the Hydrochloric Acid is added I will start the stopwatch. When the letter X can no longer be seen the stopwatch will be stopped and the time will be recorded. I will repeat this procedure for all other temperatures. Repeat results and averages will be taken to improve the credibility of the findings, and present solid grounding for the final conclusion. The repeat results will help to iron out any anomalies that may occur and the average will give a good summary of the results of the experiment. However if one set of results is entirely different to the other, a third experiment will be performed to replace the anomalous set of results. * Safety A pair of goggles will be worn throughout experiment in order to protect the eyes due to the corrosive nature of Hydrochloric Acid. This reaction will also produce a poisonous gas when in hailed in large amounts. So I will carry out this experiment in a well ventilated room. When handling hot beakers a pair of tongs will be used. A gauze and heatproof mat will be used while heating to avoid any damage to the equipment. * Fair Test In order for my findings to be valid the experiment must be a fair one. ...read more.


Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution curves show the distribution of the energy in a reaction. The main points to note about the curves are: 1. There are no particles with zero energy. 2. The curve does not touch the x-axis at the higher end, because there will always be some particles with very high energies. 3. The area under the curve is equal to the total number of particles in the system. 4. The peak of the curve indicates the most probable energy. The activation energy for a given reaction can be marked on the distribution curve. Only particles with energy equal or greater than the activation energy can react when a collision occurs. Increasing the temperature of a reaction affects the Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution curves. The theory is that for every 10�C rise the rate of reaction will double. A small increase in temperature causes significant changes to the distribution energy. As the temperature increases: 1. The peak is at a higher energy. 2. The peak is lower. 3. The peak is broader. 4. There is a large increase in the number of particles with higher energies. It is the final change that results increase in rate, even with a relatively small increase in temperature. A small increase in temperature greatly increases the number of particles with energy greater than the activation energy. The shaded areas on the energy distribution curves show this. Name: George Hindle Candidate Number: 5110 Chemistry Investigation ...read more.

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