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Natural variation

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1 Final Amarah Adam Biology- Natural variation Natural variation- foot size between boys and girls Abstract The purpose of the report is to analyze the two major factors that affect how we develop which are genetic and environmental variations. I have presented my data in a table, line graph and bar chart. I also composed a questionnaire. My major conclusions are that genes mostly affect the child's physical features. Introduction I am carrying out this experiment to see the difference in foot sizes of children. In the case of genetic variation, genes are a section of DNA within the chromosomes of a cell, which give the instructions to a cell about how to make a protein. Inherited information controls how an organism develops. Genes pass on information from the parents to the next generation and in this way, they affect our features. The environment also plays a major role in the development of humans or Homo sapiens. For example, when we spend more time in the sun, our skin gets darker. Diet choices and fitness also have an effect on our features. Hypothesis: I expect that maybe, footwear can lead to impaired growth. I also think that the length of their foot will depend on their inherited genes. ...read more.


good Good average bad Large or small body mass Large average small Exercise Rarely sometimes often Height foot size Age of mother at the birth of the child How many other children Profession Profession Was the child full term or premature Full term premature If premature how early was the baby? General diet of mother during pregnancy 6 Results: Table of my results 2002 Boys foot size (cm) Girls foot size (cm) Boys average Girls average January 17 20 18.5 February 19 20.5 18.5 19.75 18.5 March 19 19 April 19.3 23 17 18.4 19.77 18.4 May June 19.5 17.4 18.45 July 17.9 18.5 17.5 18.2 17.5 August 20 18.7 19.35 September 20 18 19.5 18.5 19 19 October 16.6 16.6 November 17.3 20.7 17 18.2 19 17.6 December 16.7 17 16.7 17 2003 January 19 15.5 19 15.5 Figure 2 8 Figure 4 9 Figure 3 shows that overall; there is not a great deal of difference in foot sizes of boys and girls of all ages. However the youngest child, born in 2003, seems to have a larger foot size than most girls. But some girls have larger foot sizes than boys. So there is zero correlation between age and foot size. ...read more.


However, this could just be 11 because of preconceived ideas on my part therefore it would need a more thorough investigative report. Also the preliminary results showed that the children, who were questioned, didn't know how to answer some of the questions, even simple questions like their ages ,so I asked the parents instead. This was helpful as it gave me a better understanding of how genetics work. However it was difficult to persuade the parents to take time out and answer the questionnaire. To overcome this, other staff members helped me to ask the parents questions as they only had so much time. I also found it difficult to ask the parents questions as they were from different ethnic backgrounds so others helped me translate the questions in their language. I also used the staff to help write down the answers as some of the parents could not write because they lacked English. I would have liked to have measured both feet, but there was only a limited amount of time, the centre let me measure the children. In future it would be interesting to look at variation of the left and right foot. Reference and Literature cited The NEC biology file GCSE Biology textbook ?? ?? ?? ?? Amarah Adam ...read more.

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The candidate included a reference section which is good for a gcse level candidate. The investigation was carried out adequately and the candidate presented the information in a clear and concise way. The lack of scientific explanations behind the hypothesis ...

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Response to the question

The candidate included a reference section which is good for a gcse level candidate. The investigation was carried out adequately and the candidate presented the information in a clear and concise way. The lack of scientific explanations behind the hypothesis and evaluation is the main thing that let this candidate down.

Level of analysis

The questionnaire used was adequate and would have addressed a range of confounding factors if the data had been presented in the right way. The science behind the experiment used was quite limited and the candidate could have included evidence of larger scientific understanding behind the topic to gain a higher mark. The evaluation is good and tries to comment on a range of improvements.

Quality of writing

Sometimes the grammar plural of words are wrongly used, and some wrong words are used in some instances resulting in wrong grammar. Spelling and punctuation seems accurate.

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