• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Neutralisation Coursework

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Neutralisation Coursework Introduction Neutralisation is the reaction of a base with an acid to form a neutral solution; which contains salt and water. Acid + Base --> Salt + Water In my experiment I am trying to find out how much acid it takes to neutralise a base to form a neutral solution. I will use one molar of Nitric Acid as the acid and one molar of Ammonium Hydroxide as the base. So this will be a 1:1 ratio. (Molarity = how many molecules of the acid or alkali per 1000 cm3 (1 litre) of water.) Nitric Acid + Ammonium Hydroxide --> Ammonium Nitrate + Water HNO + NH OH --> NH NO + H O Ionic bonding must take place to form the salt and the water. Ions have been formed because the original atoms have lost or gained electrons. These ions then have electrical charges because they do not have the same amount of positive protons and negative electrons. Atoms that loose electrons are called cations and have a positive charge. Atoms that have gained an electron and have a negative charge are called anions. The General equation for making water is: H + OH --> H O In this equation the Hydrogen ion has lost and electron and has become a cation with a positive charge. ...read more.

Middle

* Repeat this process with 15ml in total 3 times as to get an average reading. * Repeat the whole process off stepped addition but change the amount of the Ammonium Hydroxide (base) to 20ml. * Repeat again the stepped addition with 3 more volumes of Ammonium Hydroxide:- 25ml, 30ml, 35ml. (In total there should be 3 readings for each of the 5 volumes of Ammonium Hydroxide) Prediction I predict that when I use 15ml of Ammonium Hydroxide it will take 15ml of Nitric Acid to neutralise it because my preliminary experiment showed that it was a 1:1 ratio. I predict that for Monoprotic Nitric Acid: Concentration of Acid x Volume of Acid = Concentration of Alkali x Volume of Alkali The amount of acid needed to neutralise an alkali = (Molarity of Alkali x Volume of Alkali) Molarity of Acid (MAl x VAl) MA This is because Nitric acid is monoprotic, which means it is an acid, which forms one H+ ion from each acid molecule. Safety As this experiment uses potentially dangerous chemicals and acids there are many safety precautions we have to make sure we take:- 1. Always wear goggles at all times as the acid could enter the eye and cause damage. ...read more.

Conclusion

On my graph because 0ml of Nitric acid should neutralise 0ml of ammonium hydroxide, I decided to extend my line of best fit to see whether it passes through the origin, as it should in theory. I extrapolated my line of best fit and have indicated it by showing it as the red dotted line. This shows my data must be slightly inaccurate, as it doesn't pass exactly through the origin; it passes very close to the origin. I could have also used a data logger to record the pH of the solution over a period of time and got an exact reading straight onto the computer. This would have made my results even more accurate. I think that to improve this experiment I should try using different acids to see if my prediction applies to all acids. I also think to develop my experiment I should try different combinations of acids and alkalis. I could have also used a data logger to record the pH of the solution over a period of time and got an exact reading straight onto the computer. This would have made my results even more accurate. Overall my results support my conclusion that the amount needed of Nitric acid to neutralise a certain amount of ammonium hydroxide would be equal (1:1 ratio). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    chemistry coursework

    4 star(s)

    Preliminary results Volume of KI (in cm�) Volume of H2SO4 (in cm�) Volume of H202 (in cm�) Volume of special indicator (in cm�) Volume of H2O (in cm�) Time (in seconds) 40 40 15 5 0 22 25 40 15 5 15 36 10 40 15 5 30 87 The variable I intend to cover is potassium hydroxide.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Enthalpy of Neutralisation.

    3 star(s)

    BACKGROUND INFORMATION. The heat absorbed by a system at a constant pressure equals the change in enthalpy. Very often, chemical changes are accompanied by changes in the heat content of the materials, which are reacting. The correct term for heat content is enthalpy, H.

  1. To find out how dilute hydrochloric acid is needed to neutralise 25cm³ of an ...

    instead of glass cups and wrap cotton wool around it for the reactions to reduce temperature loss, and lastly I will repeat the experiment twice to get more reliable results. When using the burette, I will check the markings before and after at eye level to get the measurements as accurate as possible.

  2. Titrating Sodium hydroxide with an unknown molarity, against hydrochloric acid to find its' molarity.

    18. Repeat the titration process several more times, until you have three volumes which agree within 0.10cm�. Sources of reference used * Titrimetric analysis for A & S levels (SI Edition), J G Stark, published by John Murray * Chemical Ideas (Second edition), Salters Advanced Chemistry, published by Heinemann * Hazcards publisher?

  1. Energy Change Associated With Neutralisation

    The eight different strengths of my acid will be measured in molar and they will be: 2.00m, 1.75m, 1.50m, 1.25m, 1.00m, 0.75m, 0.50m, and 0.25m. The acid I will be using is hydrochloric acid. To dilute my acid I will use water.

  2. Investigating Neutralisation.

    Prediction There are hydrogen ions (H) in acids and hydroxide ions (OH) in alkalis. They react together to give water (H2 0). ACID +ALKALI WATER + BASE Alkalis dissolve in water and the resulting solution contains hydroxide ions, OH: - Hydrochloric + Sodium Sodium + Water Acid Hydroxide Chloride H+Cl- (aq)

  1. The Properties of Nitric Acid.

    + HCl(aq) (r) HNO2(aq) + NaCl(aq) Calculations: Moles of NaNo2 and HCL, ratio 1:1 Amount needed = 100cm3 of 2M HNO2 Amount of HCl = 50cm3 of 2M HCl 50 x 2 = 0.1 moles 1000 Moles of NaNo2 = 0.1 moles Mass = 0.1 x (RMM 69g)

  2. Investigation into the volume of acid needed to neutralise an alkali.

    The highest concentration I will use is 0.1M and the lowest is 0.02M. I will not record outside these limits because 0.1M is the standard concentration given and 0.02M is a weak solution so a weaker one would take too much time. I will measure the volumes to 2decimal places.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work