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Neutralisation Coursework

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Introduction

Neutralisation Coursework Introduction Neutralisation is the reaction of a base with an acid to form a neutral solution; which contains salt and water. Acid + Base --> Salt + Water In my experiment I am trying to find out how much acid it takes to neutralise a base to form a neutral solution. I will use one molar of Nitric Acid as the acid and one molar of Ammonium Hydroxide as the base. So this will be a 1:1 ratio. (Molarity = how many molecules of the acid or alkali per 1000 cm3 (1 litre) of water.) Nitric Acid + Ammonium Hydroxide --> Ammonium Nitrate + Water HNO + NH OH --> NH NO + H O Ionic bonding must take place to form the salt and the water. Ions have been formed because the original atoms have lost or gained electrons. These ions then have electrical charges because they do not have the same amount of positive protons and negative electrons. Atoms that loose electrons are called cations and have a positive charge. Atoms that have gained an electron and have a negative charge are called anions. The General equation for making water is: H + OH --> H O In this equation the Hydrogen ion has lost and electron and has become a cation with a positive charge. ...read more.

Middle

* Repeat this process with 15ml in total 3 times as to get an average reading. * Repeat the whole process off stepped addition but change the amount of the Ammonium Hydroxide (base) to 20ml. * Repeat again the stepped addition with 3 more volumes of Ammonium Hydroxide:- 25ml, 30ml, 35ml. (In total there should be 3 readings for each of the 5 volumes of Ammonium Hydroxide) Prediction I predict that when I use 15ml of Ammonium Hydroxide it will take 15ml of Nitric Acid to neutralise it because my preliminary experiment showed that it was a 1:1 ratio. I predict that for Monoprotic Nitric Acid: Concentration of Acid x Volume of Acid = Concentration of Alkali x Volume of Alkali The amount of acid needed to neutralise an alkali = (Molarity of Alkali x Volume of Alkali) Molarity of Acid (MAl x VAl) MA This is because Nitric acid is monoprotic, which means it is an acid, which forms one H+ ion from each acid molecule. Safety As this experiment uses potentially dangerous chemicals and acids there are many safety precautions we have to make sure we take:- 1. Always wear goggles at all times as the acid could enter the eye and cause damage. ...read more.

Conclusion

On my graph because 0ml of Nitric acid should neutralise 0ml of ammonium hydroxide, I decided to extend my line of best fit to see whether it passes through the origin, as it should in theory. I extrapolated my line of best fit and have indicated it by showing it as the red dotted line. This shows my data must be slightly inaccurate, as it doesn't pass exactly through the origin; it passes very close to the origin. I could have also used a data logger to record the pH of the solution over a period of time and got an exact reading straight onto the computer. This would have made my results even more accurate. I think that to improve this experiment I should try using different acids to see if my prediction applies to all acids. I also think to develop my experiment I should try different combinations of acids and alkalis. I could have also used a data logger to record the pH of the solution over a period of time and got an exact reading straight onto the computer. This would have made my results even more accurate. Overall my results support my conclusion that the amount needed of Nitric acid to neutralise a certain amount of ammonium hydroxide would be equal (1:1 ratio). ...read more.

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