• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9

Nuclear Power

Extracts from this document...


Nuclear Power Nuclear power plants create electricity using the energy released by splitting atoms to boil water and create steam which turns a steam turbine driving a generator. Since no fuel is burned, there are no gases or pollutants released into the air. The water used to create steam is isolated from radiation and any hot water to be discharged is cooled down in ponds or in tall cooling towers. Nuclear waste is the only byproduct of nuclear power and is packaged and stored rather than released into the environment. Unlike other fossil fuels, nuclear power plants release almost no emissions into the environment. Two different light-water reactor designs are currently in use, the Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) and the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Diagram of a PWR In a PWR, the heat is removed from the reactor by water flowing in a closed pressurized loop. The heat is transferred to a second water loop through a heat exchanger. The second loop is kept at a lower pressure, allowing the water to boil and create steam, which is used to turn the turbine-generator and produce electricity. Afterward, the steam is condensed into water and returned to the heat exchanger. ...read more.


Many birds rely on the tide uncovering the mud flats so that they can feed. there are few suitable sites for tidal barrages. * Only provides power for around 10 hours each day, when the tide is actually moving in or out. Solar Power The photovoltaic solar cell is a semiconductor that converts light into electricity. As light strikes the surface of the cell it is absorbed and frees electrons in the top layer which are then trapped in the bottom layer. When the top and bottom layers are connected by an electric circuit, the electrons travel back to the top layer through the circuit creating an electric current.In this form of cell there are two layers of semiconductor material, one negative and the other positive. The layers are made mostly of silicon crystal with some impurities added (doping). In the top layer some of the silicon atoms (orange dots) have been replaced by an element that has one more electron such as phosphorous (green dots) which makes the layer negative (n-type layer) due to the extra electrons. In the bottom layer, some of the silicon atoms have been replaced by an element that has one less electron such as boron (red dots) ...read more.


Combined cycle plants use about 10 million gallons of water per day, consuming 7 million and putting 3 million gallons back into nearby rivers. Wave Energy There are several methods of getting energy from waves, but one of the most effective works like a swimming pool wave machine in reverse. At a wave power station, the waves arriving cause the water in the chamber to rise and fall, which means that air is forced in and out of the hole in the top of the chamber. We place a turbine in this hole, which is turned by the air rushing in and out. The turbine turns a generator. A problem with this design is that the rushing air can be very noisy, unless a silencer is fitted to the turbine. The noise is not a huge problem anyway, as the waves make quite a bit of noise themselves. Advantages * The energy is free - no fuel needed, no waste produced. * Not expensive to operate and maintain. * Can produce a great deal of energy. Disadvantages * Depends on the waves - sometimes you'll get loads of energy, sometimes nothing. * Needs a suitable site, where waves are consistently strong. * Some designs are noisy. * Must be able to withstand very rough weather. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Green Plants as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Green Plants as Organisms essays

  1. The Waste Land by Eliot emphasises the themes of dystopia and apocalypse.

    , who speaks of the Tarot cards and the "Drowned Phoenician sailor" (47) as well as "Belladonna, the Lady of the Rocks" (49). Sosostris advises the person she is reading, presumably the narrator, to "fear death by water" (55). However, the psychic's words are deceptive.

  2. Ashland Oil Inc.: Trouble at Floreffe

    As a part of the oil industry, Ashland had the responsibility to ensure that the tanker with oil was properly insured against problems. Three things that came under scrutiny in the preliminary investigation were: * Age of the oil tanker * Testing that had been done before filling it *

  1. Three Gorges Dam Essay.

    'Experts' say that with the dam built, the flow of water can be controlled to prevent frequent floods from once a decade to once a century as the reservoir has a storage capacity of 22.1 billion cubic meters.

  2. Study the condensation of steam at different temperature levels

    solution is to make a thermocouple and attach it to the surface. The main obstacle in this experiment is measuring the rate of steam condensation, I think its important that this is dynamically recorded to give me a good idea of how fast the steam collects up on the surface.

  1. Temperature regulation in mammals & birds.

    % Discrepancy from line of best fit 1) 2.1 = [(0.063 - 0.061)/0.061] x 100 = 3.8% 2) 2.7 = [(0.084 - 0.077)/0.077] x 100 = 9.1% 3) 3.1 = [(0.079 - 0.088)/0.088] x 100 = 10.2% 4) 3.5 = [(0.093 - 0.098)/0.098] x 100 = 5.1% 5) 4.0 = [(0.1 - 0.111)/0.111] x 100 = 10.0% 6)

  2. Generating electricity

    This spinning shaft is connected to the rotor of a generator, and the generator produces electricity. The diagram below shows this process Fossil-fuelled plants Fossil fuels are what are left of plant and animal life that existed millions of years ago.

  1. The history of the canals

    The level of water in the lock is controlled by opening lags (sluices) which are called paddles. The paddles allow water to run in or out of the lock. On modern rivers and locks the paddles are worked by electricity.

  2. Teas Farming in India

    If pluckers are harvesting an area near the factory, they will take their plucked leaf direct to the factory for weighing. On an estate, each plucker is credited with their own weight of tea for subsequent payment. The currency of India is the rupee.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work