• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Nuclear Waste and Radiation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Nuclear Waste and Radiation Nuclear Radiation is the emanation of energy waves that are passed through space and any physical objects. From ultra violet rays from the sun, x-rays, transmission signals that are send to televisions and radios, are all part of the nuclear radiation, that are all common in our daily life. Although, if nuclear radiation gets exposed, or gets uncontrollable, it could harm human beings or any living thing for the matter. To this date, scientists fear that exposures of nuclear radiation could cost the lives of innocence and increase the risks of getting cancer. Since nuclear radiation has been developed and used to create atomic bomb and nuclear weapons, nuclear radiation is one of the most hazardous but beneficial discovery. There are four main types of radiation; alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays/x-rays and neutrons. Alpha particles are made up of two protons and two neutrons. It does not infiltrate far into a substance and can be stopped easily. Although it is proficient of breaking chemical bonds when in contact of a molecule due to its size, mass and charge. Whereas the beta particles can have either a negative or a positive charge but has a relatively small amount of mass. This indicates that the beta particles are equivalent to the electrons. Conversely to the alpha particles, the beta particles are light and small whereas the alpha particles are slow and heavy. ...read more.

Middle

Furthermore, there are also dangers of radiation types, such as a decrease in the ability of penetrating and the ability to ionize or to create electric charges that might be damaged from radiation. These radiation hazards are so perilous because of the sources and situations that has occurred within nuclear radiation; the nuclear fallout from the atmospheric testing, the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine in 1986 not including the sources we can access today, of uranium mining and conventional power plants. However, these nuclear radiations can be obtained and controlled by either limited exposure to nuclear radiation or protection from the operation of nuclear reactors. In most countries, public dose are limited for exposure to nuclear radiation from uranium mining or nuclear power plants are generally set at 1mSv per year, with workers from uranium mining and power plants, limiting the exposure to approximately 20mSv per year. (2) This can be obtained by the requirements set from the factories and mines to keep exposure as low as possible. In uranium mining operations are regulated and levels of exposure are monitored precisely and accurately due to the safety in the heath of workers in the mines. There are four main approach that can be taken in effect to help protect and reduce the exposure of radiation which are; firstly, you can li mit the tie in which the people are exposed to radiation, and in occupational situations, doses of radiation can be reduce with the reduction of working time. ...read more.

Conclusion

Comparable to the low level radioactive waste, the high level radioactive waste emits a larger amount of radiation causing it to have a longer period of time (half- lives) before the waste will settle to its safe level of radioactivity, with some elements having a half-life of over 100,000 years. The low level wastes are disposed by the use of low level waste landfills that surrounds containers of waste that are buried underground in near trenches and that are bounded by compressed land. For high level wastes, it is disposed by the use of fuel rod storage pools that removes it from the reactors until permanent disposal will occur for approximately 40 years, so that the radioactivity decrease to a manageable level. It could also be disposed by burying it in the ocean receptacles, in polar sheets, sending it to outer space or burying it underground in an ecological container. (3) In conclusion, nuclear radiation is one of the most hazardous discoveries made but it can also be beneficial to the use of medicines, radiations for patients, radioactivity transmission to televisions and radios. When radiations are in contact it could harm the individual's health and put them into risks of receiving cancer. It is important to be protected from excessive exposure to radiation. References: (1) World Nuclear Association, "Radiation and Nuclear Energy", Sweden, 1995, p 13, http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf05.htm (2) World Nuclear Association, "Radiation and Nuclear Energy", Sweden, 1995, p 6, http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf05.htm (3) University of Wollongong, "Nuclear Waste Disposal" , Australia, 2008, p 1, http://www.uow.edu.au/eng/phys/nukeweb/fuel_disposal. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Changing Materials - The Earth and its Atmosphere section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Changing Materials - The Earth and its Atmosphere essays

  1. Should the UK build more Nuclear Power Stations?

    The two resulting atoms from the fission later release beta radiation and the neutrons, together, weigh less than the original U-235 atom. One pound of highly enriched uranium, such as the uranium to power nuclear submarines / nuclear aircraft carriers, is equal to around a million gallons of petrol.

  2. Plastics- A Benefit or a Disaster? (Science research coursework)

    Items such as earth wire are made from a plastic called fibrous plastic because it is a cheap, tough and a very insulating plastic. On the other hand, some plastic items lend themselves to be reused many times over. Reusing plastic is preferable to recycling as it uses less energy and fewer resources.

  1. Alternative Energy Sources

    will only be sufficient for the world's increasing population for only about 14 more years.5 The main source of energy for electrical power plants is usually natural gas, coal and nuclear energy which are supplied from nuclear reactors. Nuclear energy is very high and very effective but the only problem is the radioactive waste that is produced alongside.

  2. Should the UK government continue to invest in Nuclear power?

    * Proliferation: Some forms of nuclear reactor, known as "breeder" reactors produce plutonium, which can be used to make nuclear weapons. There are other reactors which do not have this problem, but it is another issue which must be addressed before the possibility of a nuclear future can be taken seriously.

  1. Is an increase in traffic pollution the

    Pg 5 In the Lancet asthma study, researchers followed two groups of children in southern California from 1993 to 1998. One group lived in six communities with low pollution levels; the other lived in six communities with high pollution levels.

  2. Making an electric cell

    No - it wouldn't work! Any probe you put in is going to have a similar sort of equilibrium happening around it. The best you could measure would be some sort of combination of the effects at the probe and the piece of metal you are testing.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work