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Organic chemistry I (introduction, alkanes, alkenes,halogenoalkanes and alcohols)

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Introduction

Topic 2.2: Organic chemistry I (introduction, alkanes, alkenes, halogenoalkanes and alcohols) e). Applied organic chemistry i) the advantage and disadvantages of liquid and gaseous fuels e). Applied organic chemistry ii) the structures and properties of the polymers of simple alkanes and their uses Polymerisation occurs when a large number of small molecules (monomers) combine with a large number of small molecules(polymer). Alkanes (and their derivatives) are used to form synthetic polymers. The high density polymer is tougher and denser because it is more crystalline. Ethane polymerize to poly (ethane) or 'polythene'. It is a polymer, a very large molecule. It is made form single unit by a process of addition. [CH2 - CH2] n is called the repeating unit. Polythene is a plastic material which is in everyday use for different purposes like film packing, electrical insulation and container for household chemicals. It is a very important industrial application of alkanes. ...read more.

Middle

Tetra Floroethene polymerize to Poly(tetrafluroethene) They are also known as PITE or Teflon. They are capable of wide structural variation. The bond between C and F is chemically unattachable. The molecule is like a tightly twisted rope and the solid is hard and slippery. It is used where a lubricated surface is in contact with chemicals for seals because it resists chemical attack well, like burette taps and bearings for stirres. It is also used as a surface coating for some non-stick oven wear. e). Applied organic chemistry iii) recall that halogens are used in the manufacture of herbicides and polymers; understand that the strength of the C-X bond gives a useful life to many of these compounds. Topic 2.5: Industrial inorganic chemistry c) apply the knowledge gained in this unit concerning enthalpy change,equilibra and kinetics to justify the conditions used to obtain an economic yield in the processes in(a) ...read more.

Conclusion

f) recall the production of chlorine and sodium chlorate(I) by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution. Sodium chloride is an ionic compound. When electrolysis of sodium chloride occurs, Na+ ions move towards the cathode, receive an electron and become neutral and liberated at the cathode. While the Cl- moves toward the anode, releases the electron it has received from Na atom, becomes neutral and gets released or liberate at the anode. Inside the electrolyte, the flow of current is maintained by taking of electrons by Na+ ions moving toward the cathode and release of electron by Cl- ions moving towards the anode, with the result that Na+ and Cl- ion become neutral Na. and Cl. atom. At Cathode (-) Na+ + e Na. At Anode (+) Cl- Cl. + e Net affect: Na+ Cl- Na. + Cl. f) recall the uses of chlorine and sodium chlorate(I). The uses of chlorine are as follows: * as a cheap industrial oxidation in the manufacture of bromine. * as a bleaching agent. * as a germicide * used in manufacture of non-inflammable solvent. The uses of sodium chlorate(I) are as follows: * ...read more.

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