• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Our cardiovascular system

Extracts from this document...


TASK 4 BY VICTORIA MCDONALD Our cardiovascular system consists of the heart, vascular system and blood. These organs all work together to supply oxygen to our body, which we need to live. BLOOD Blood is used as a transport system, this picks up oxygen from around our body, and haemoglobin puts the oxygen into cells called red blood cells. Then this gets moved to our muscles that are contracting ready for movement to take place. HEART The heart this is the strongest muscle in the body, and has four parts to it these are called chambers, the heart also has separate parts to it these are called chambers. The left side of the heart consists of oxygenated blood and the right side consists of de- oxygenated. The cycle of the heart, our heart never stops beating. The vein called the pulmonary vein, this vein is attached to the lungs to collect oxygen. Haemoglobin then picks up the oxygen and this is then put into red blood cells. ...read more.


RESPIRATORY SYSTEM The respiratory system, as we breathe our respiratory muscles contract, these muscles include the diaphragm and internal- external intercostals. As we breathe our rib cage moves upwards and outwards, it does this so we can increase the amount of oxygen in our lungs. The oxygen then travels down the wind pipe. The air passage is the split into two sections for both lungs. The oxygen travels through the bronchus; this then goes into the alveoli. After the air particles are branched out in the alveoli gaseous exchange takes place. When we breathe out the diaphragm and external- inter costals relax. The ribs move inwards and downwards as this decreases the amount of air in the lungs. When we exercise we decide when we breathe, for instance incase we need to breathe faster. BREATHING CONTROL Breathing control, this is controlled by the nervous system this is influenced by chemical changes during exercise. When we breathe at normal rate, nerve impulses from the respiratory system are sent out. ...read more.


The nearer the artery is to the heart, the thicker is the elastic fibres are . The thick elastic walls also help to maintain the high pressure of the blood in the arteries. The high pressure help push the blood along the artery. Shown below is a diagram of an artery showing the structure of it. THE STRUCTURE OF VEINS While veins have the same layers as arteries, i.e. intima, media and adventitia, the organization of each layer is different, reflecting different function. In general veins have to sustain a much lower pressure than arteries, therefore have less need for a thick muscular intima. Veins are the capacitance vessels of the system and must be able to dilate to accept an increased volume. The large veins have a thin media with smooth muscle, elastin and collagen separated from the intima by an incomplete internal elastic lamina. In many large veins valves are present as specializations of the intima. The adventitia is composed largely of collagen and is thicker than in arteries of comparable size. Perivascular nerves are present in the adventitia but are scarce indicating a low level of control of veins by the nervous system. http://www.med.mun.ca/anatomyts/first/lgvein.JPG ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. The cardiovascular system is made up of the heart and the blood vessels, such ...

    that the short term effects of the Bruce treadmill are sweat, heavy breathing, increased heart rate, muscle burn and slight pain. This individual may not have stretched off properly before the test that is why he got pain in his hamstrings.

  2. List the effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system, including the cardiac cycle and ...

    This is a result of muscles squeezing the veins, which increases peripheral resistance and an increase in intra-thoracic pressure due to the contraction of the abdominals. For example, weightlifters will hold their breath during exertion and this causes a significant increase in both systolic and diastolic pressure.


    A balanced diet consists of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids (fats and oils), dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals and water to replace that lost or used by the body. All components should be adjusted to suit the individual requirements. Carbohydrates provide energy for the body.

  2. Digestivesystem / Cardio-respiratory System Assignment

    These hormonal increases have been shown to increase satiety. Endorphins, cortisol, and insulin all lead to decreased satiety or increased hunger. The significant presence of cortisol in those genetically prone to obesity may be a big problem. Insulin however, is a double edge sword. High insulin levels increase liver metabolism of nutrients.

  1. The cardiovascular and respiratory system

    Structure of cardiovascular system The heart- The heart is a key figure in the cardiovascular system. It is responsible for pumping the blood around the body non-stop, all day long. It will never stop beating until it dies. Because of this function, the heart is a cardiac muscle, which means that it will never tier or fatigue.

  2. Investigating the control of the cardiovascular system.

    * You then have to ensure the cuff is on secure enough then inflate it. * Then record the readings. The possible sources of error could have been; * If the blood pressure cuff is wrongly fitted then the results are prone to errors.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work