• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

oxidation of ethanol

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Oxidation of Ethanol Safety The chemicals used in the experiment were- > Ethanol > Ethanal > Ethanoic Acid > Sodium Carbonate > Sodium Dichromate > Sulphuric Acid > Universal Indicator The above chemicals did have some hazards when in the context of this experiment. Due to these hazards, to protect from things like the Na2Cr2O7, which stains, I wore protective glasses to prevent things from entering my eyes. Below are the hazards. Ethanol - Highly flammable above 13�C causing a narcotic effect if inhalation of the vapour occurs. Toxic Dangerous with � Oxidising Agents - incontrollable reactions take place � Bromine � Mercury (??) � Silver Nitrate � Platinum � Potassium Ethanal - Extremely flammable above -27�C Harmful - risk of irreversible effects Dangerous with sulphuric acid - evident polymerisation reaction May occur Ethanoic Acid - Corrosive � Severe Burns � Flammable above ...read more.

Middle

Below are the observations for the experiment in the order of observing them. At the very beginning when I added the concentrated sulphuric acid to the water I noticed as I held the pear shaped flask that it began to heat up. This meant that the reaction between the acid and the water was an exothermic one meaning it gave out heat to the surroundings as energy was released. The next step involved mixing of the sodium dichromate, which was a bright orange solid, and the water with the ethanol, which was a clear solution. The reason for this was because the reaction between the two solutions caused it to continue boiling. The resulting solution was a bright orange colour due to the sodium dichromate. ...read more.

Conclusion

Conclusion Therefore to conclude my experiment I can deduce from my results that oxidising ethanol produces ethanoic acid. This was proven from my two tests. The sodium carbonate test proves that the ethanol was oxidised into ethanoic acid because when added to the distillate effervescence occurred. This would only have occurred if the distillate were ethanoic acid. If it were ethanal then it would not have fizzled. The equation for this is- 2CH3COOH + Na2C03 2CH3COO� Na+ + C02 + H2O Effervescence The universal indicator test also proves that the distillate is an acid. This is because when added to the distillate it turns a bright red, which means it is a 1 on the pH scale. This would not have happened if ethanal was the distillate. The colour change during the experiment was due to the redox reaction-taking place. The orange dichromate ion (Cr2 O7� �) was reduced to a green chromium (???) ion (Cr�+). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

3 star(s)

Response to the question

The student has shown a fair understanding of chemistry alcohols and their oxidation reactions. The coursework provides an above-average experimental details of oxidation reaction of Ethanol. Despite bringing unnecessary and not completely correct information into the topic, it gives a ...

Read full review

Response to the question

The student has shown a fair understanding of chemistry alcohols and their oxidation reactions. The coursework provides an above-average experimental details of oxidation reaction of Ethanol. Despite bringing unnecessary and not completely correct information into the topic, it gives a very brief and solid explanation of the outcome of the investigation. Many experimental precautions have been taken into account when doing the actual experiment, but the reasons are not clear and properly given. There is no chemical equation for the main reaction which MUST be given in such a coursework.

Level of analysis

The method of approach is acceptable but the experiment is not repeated to confirm the results. Brady's reagent is stated in the extra information however the compound is not used to test the outcome. The effervescence must be CO2 however a test is not given to confirm its presence. Universal indicator would not be a good indicator for such an investigation since the resulting compound from the same experiment must be used in different tests to confirm the presence of Ethanoic Acid. As the reaction is taking place under reflux, Carboxylic acid is definitely produced and not Ethanal since Aldehydes are produced only as a result of partial oxidation of Primary alcohols. The result of experiment is known from the past and the point of the coursework is to understand and do it completely as if you never knew it was going to happen "this way", however the author has to a certain extent used already known facts in his/her analysis.

Quality of writing

There are no severe grammatical or spelling errors to be pointed out, however the usage of technical terms is not very strong and the writer needs to work on the way he/she puts her answer on the paper as it carries them a lot through their GCSE/IGCSE exams and even later in the Advanced Level chemistry.


Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by alireza.parpaei 13/03/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    What an ester is, how it is made, examples of esters, animal testing issues ...

    4 star(s)

    1998, worldwide companies such as 'L'Or�al' import their cosmetics into the UK having been tested in France (where the company is based). There is a bigger argument about testing cosmetics on animals, than other areas such as medicine. This is because many people believe that medicine improves health, but make-up

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid

    3 star(s)

    Most importantly I had noticed that the reaction was excothermic, which means that the reaction got hot its self, which made it even more difficult to control the temperature. However I found out a way to keep my temperature surrounding the reaction constant; by using a electronic water bath with

  1. Peer reviewed

    An experiment to investigate the rate of reaction between

    5 star(s)

    I will also look out for a change in mass of the marble chips which I will do by weighing them before and after the reaction. The concentrations I have chosen to use in my experiment are: * 2.0 * 1.6 * 1.2 * 0.8 * 0.4 I have decided

  2. Titration experiment - write up

    a lab coat will also be worn to protect the skin and clothing from any spillages. Name of chemical Hazard Safety Precautions Sodium carbonate (anhydrous) Sulphuric acid Methyl orange An irritant which can irritate the lungs if inhaled. Can cause irritation to the skin and eyes.

  1. Esters. Esters are formed from an alcohol and carboxylic acid; this is an ...

    this is an excellent marketing strategy given the widespread public disapproval of the practice. Ironically, those companies who do not test cosmetics on animals are still benefiting from previous data that was conducted on animals. The basic ingredients in many cosmetics formulations are the same.

  2. Investigation to compare quantitatively the concentration of reducing sugars in samples of fresh orange, ...

    Overall 1% = 10mg/ cm� Therefore with the new units of concentration worked out the table will look like this: Fruit Fruit concentration (in the actual juice) Juice concentration (%) Juice concentration (mg/ cm�) Lemon 2 2.2 22 Grapefruit 6 8.3 83 Orange 11 10.1 101 Preliminary Work: My aim

  1. Formation of Ethanol

    At temperatures below 25�C, the reaction is slow, whereas at temperatures above 37�C, the enzyme denatures. Therefore, in relation to yield of the ethanol, the reaction is done at a strict temperature of 37�C. The fermentation is carried out non-aseptically in the absence of air for about 1-3 days where it would be distilled.

  2. GCSE Chemistry Revision Notes - everything!

    A chlorine atom has an electron arrangement of 2, 8, 7 (i.e. one electron less than the electron arrangement of 2, 8, 8). So each sodium atom loses one electron to form a sodium ion Na+ and each chlorine atom gains one electron and forms a chloride ion Cl-.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work