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# Pendulum investigation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Pendulum investigation

Plan

Aim

To investigate how the length of a simple pendulum will affect the time for a full swing.

Variables

Length

The length of the pendulum has a large effect on the time for a complete swing. As the pendulum gets longer the time increases. As the pendulum gets shorter the time decreases.

Air resistance

A big and light pendulum bobble would be affected by a major amount of air resistance. This might cause the pendulum to move in a different way.

With a little pendulum bobble there is very small air resistance. This can easily be observed because it takes an extended time for the pendulum to stop swinging, so only a small amount of energy is lost on each swing.

Gravity

The pendulum is motivated by the force of gravity acting on it.

The more gravity the shorter time it will take for a complete swing.

The less gravity the longer it would take for a complete swing

Size of swing

The size of the swing does not have large effect on the time.

Mass

The mass of the pendulum does not affect the time at all.

Prediction
The diagram shows the arcs through which two pendulums swing. The red one is twice the length of the black one. The black arc is always at a steeper angle than the red arc, and always above it.

Middle

10

10

25.41

2. Altering the mass of the bob

The mass was altered by a measurement of 20 grams. This had a small effect on the time.

 length(cm) mass(g) displacement(cm) time (20 swings)(seconds) 60 5 10 31.02 60 25 10 31.16

3. Altering the displacement of swing
the size of the swing was changed by a measurement of 20 cm and this had little effect on the time.

 length(cm) mass(g) displacement(cm) time (20 swings)(seconds) 60 10 10 31.05 60 10 20 31.39

From the trial data I found

Conclusion

The even trend in the graph specifies that the results are accurate and dependable. There are no irregular results to be seen in the trend of the graph.

Reliability

No significant problems or difficulties were met when performing this investigation. The accuracy and reliability of the results and conclusions are incredibly good. From the accuracy method applied and for the range of values tested, it is quite understandable that the time for a simple pendulum takes for a complete swing is proportional to the square-root of the length.

### Improvements

The procedure used was simple and straightforward and no difficulties were encountered. A small improvement could be made regarding the measuring of the length pendulum. A piece of wood, could be placed level with the point of suspension, and a set square could be placed along the flat side and just touching the bottom of the pendulum. This distance could then be measured extra accurately than trying to guess where the middle of the bobble is.

More attempts could be taken but I do not think it is necessary or would make a significant difference to the morals of the conclusion.

Longer lengths could be tried, up to whatever lengths desired. If the pendulum gets very long a stronger string will be needed and a bobble in ratio.

Extending the investigation

Extending the investigation would mean extend the range of lengths tested and observing if the same trend continues. Add more to the extension

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.

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