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# Penguins Investigation

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Introduction

BIOLOGY COURSEWORK PENGUINS LIVE IN THE ANTARTIC. TO STAY WARM, THEY HUDDLE TOGETHER AND FLUFF UP THEIR FEATHERS. USING TEST TUBES FILLED WITH HOT WATER AS PENGUINS, PLAN AN INVESTIGATION TO FIND OUT HOW THIS BEHAVIOUR HELPS PENGUINS RETAIN HEAT! PLANNING I will use test tubes filled up with hot water as penguins. Also, I will be using a measuring cylinder to measure the water. I will use the same amount of water in each test tube (10 ml) and take the temperature at regular intervals. All water will start at the same temperature. We will continue the experiment for 15 minutes. I will make 2 different experiments giving out 4 different results: * Test tube on its own * The middle tube * The tube in the 2nd layer * The tube in the 3rd layer PREDICTION I predict that a huddled group will lose less heat than an isolated penguin. This is because the exposed surface area of a group of animals is less for each penguin than an isolated one. ...read more.

Middle

CONCLUSION The results show that an isolated penguin will lose heat faster than a penguin in the middle of a huddle. As I predicted, a huddled penguin will conserve more heat than an isolated penguin. The exposed surface area of a huddled animal is less than an isolated one, so it cools down more slowly. In the first experiment, the penguin on the middle and those in the 2ndlayer keep their temperature longer than those on the outer layer because the test tube on the middle radiates heat and the layer surrounding it receives the heat without losing it. Also, the surface exposed by the test tubes in the 2nd layer is the same than the one in the middle and the 3rd layer of test tubes has part of its surface exposed so it tends to cool down faster than the inner layers. EVALUATION I can say that the results show a pattern and they support my prediction. But I have to say that my results are not 100% exact because when I measured the water from the kettle to the cylinder and from the measuring cylinder to the test tube, the water tends to cool down. ...read more.

Conclusion

TEMPERATURE (0C) AVERAGE TEMPERATURE Trial 1 Trial 2 1 75 75 75 2 75 75 75 3 74 75 74.5 4 74 74 74 5 74 74 74 6 74 73 73.5 7 73 73 73 8 72 73 72.5 9 72 72 72 10 71 71 71 11 70 71 70.5 12 70 70 70 13 69 69 69 14 68 68 68 15 68 67 67.5 EXPERIMENT 2 Test tube on its own TIME (seconds) TEMPERATURE (0C) AVERAGE TEMPERATURE Trial 1 Trial 2 1 75 75 75 2 73 74 73.5 3 70 72 71 4 70 71 70.5 5 70 71 70.5 6 68 70 69 7 65 69 67 8 64 65 64.5 9 63 64 63.5 10 62 62 62 11 61 62 61.5 12 60 62 61 13 60 58 59 14 58 56 57 15 57 55 56 HUDDLED GROUP OF TEST TUBES USED TO REPRESENT PENGUINS TEST TUBE IN THE MIDDLE SECOND LAYER THIRD LAYER BY: MARIA ESCOBAR (11 C) ...read more.

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