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Penguins tend to huddle together for warmth - carry out an experiment to see why these animals do this and whether it is a method of preventing heat loss.

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Penguins tend to huddle together for warmth. I am going to carry out an experiment to proof why these animals do this and whether it is a method of preventing heat loss Penguins are Cold-blooded animals this means they can maintain their body temperature by behavioural means. An example is a cold-blooded creature going out to bask in the sun and taking shade when the creature is too hot. Therefore warm-blooded animals have certain advantages over cold-blooded animals: � They can remain active all day. � They can survive in harsh environment. . The advantage of warm-blooded animals is that all these internal processes that maintain the body temperature require a lot of energy. This energy is obtained from food. Warm-blooded animals eat up to ten times as much as cold-blooded animals because their demands are greater Due to the reasons mentioned above, it is vital that warm-blooded animals reduce heat loss. This can be achieved by; � Having the right size and shape � Physical means - � Insulation (hair trapping air & layers of fat) ...read more.


No bottles in huddle Temp of isolated bottle test 1 (0C) Temperature of Isolated Bottle Test 2(0C) Average Obtained 1 15 50 50 50 2 14 3 13 4 12 5 11 6 10 7 9 8 8 9 7 10 6 11 5 12 4 13 3 14 2 15 1 Apparatus Thermometer (to measure temperatures) Measuring Cylinder (to measure amount of water 30ml) Plastic bottle (to use to represent the penguins) Stop watch (to time experiment 15minutes) Kettle (to heat water) Other apparatus: kettle, stop clock, measuring cylinder. Method: Collect all equipment and boil the kettle. Using a measuring cylinder dispense 35ml of water into each bottle Assemble huddle and pour water in all of the tubes Measure the temperature of each bottle When ready, start the clock and pour water into the centre of the huddle and into the isolated bottle. Take the temperature of the isolated bottle and the bottle at the centre of the huddle every minute and remove one bottle form the huddle until the desired time is up. ...read more.


It is vital for penguins to keep warm as their living environment is usually in extremely cold places were there are sub zero temperatures. I hypothesise that a huddled group will lose less heat than an isolated animal. This is because the exposed surface area of a group of animals is less for each animal than an isolated animal . Difficulties in experiment: Getting the starting temperature for all the containers Avoiding spillages of water therefore causing an accident The table conducted some of the heat Making sure no water was lost The measurements may not have been accurate Improvements to the experiment: > Introduce more bottles to the huddle > Studied the isolated bottle over a longer amount of time > Used different materials of bottles which would have meant that they would have had different types of properties in regard to heat loss > Used a thermostatically controlled water bath to obtain better results > Use a digital stopwatch > Stir the bottles of water > Vary starting temperature of water > Using a digital thermometer ...read more.

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