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Period 3 Elements.

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Period 3 Elements Sodium (Na) Sodium is silvery in colour, with a soft state at room temperature. It is a conductor of heat and electricity. It has a melting point of 371.01 K and a boiling point of 1154.6 K. Sodium is never found as the free element ("native") in nature as it is so reactive. Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the earth's crust at about 2.6 - 3.0%. Rock salt (sodium chloride, NaCl, or halite), is the most common mineral, but it occurs in many other minerals including sodium borate (borax), sodium carbonate (soda), sodium nitrate (Chile saltpetre). and sodium sulphate (thenardite). In those species, however, it is the anions that are the reason for mining. Sodium is present as salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in huge quantities in underground deposits (salt mines) and seawater and other natural waters. It is easily recovered as a solid by drying. The following list is just some of the uses of Sodium: * sodium metal is used in the preparation of tetraethyl lead, PbEt4, an important anti-knock reagent in leaded petrol (gasoline) - fortunately being phased out in many countries because of lead pollution problems * sodium metal is used in the preparation of titanium metal from TiCl4 * the metal is used in the manufacture of sodamide, sodium cyanide, sodium peroxide, and sodium hydride * the metal is used in the reduction of organic esters, and in the preparation of organic compounds * the alloy with potassium, NaK, is an important heat transfer agent and a good chemical reducing agent (as some proportions of Na and K are liquid at room temperature). * sodium compounds including "common salt" (sodium chloride, NaCl), "soda ash" (sodium carbonate, Na2CO3), "baking soda" (sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3, "bicarb"), and "caustic soda" (sodium hydroxide, NaOH), are important to the paper, glass, soap, textile, petroleum, chemical, and metal industries . ...read more.


The following list is some of the uses of Aluminium: * cans and foils * kitchen utensils * outside building decoration * industrial applications where a strong, light, easily constructed material is needed * although its electrical conductivity is only about 60% that of copper per area of cross section, it is used in electrical transmission lines because of its lightness and price * alloys are of vital importance in the construction of modern aircraft and rockets * aluminium, evaporated in a vacuum, forms a highly reflective coating for both visible light and radiant heat. These coatings soon form a thin layer of the protective oxide and do not deteriorate as do silver coatings. These coatings are used for telescope mirrors, decorative paper, packages, toys, and in many other uses * the oxide, alumina, occurs naturally as ruby, sapphire, corundum, and emery, and is used in glass making and refractories. Synthetic ruby and sapphire are used in the construction of lasers Silicon (Si) Silicon is dark grey with a bluish tinge in colour and a solid at room temperature. It is conductive to both heat and temperature. It has a melting point of 1683.2 K and a boiling point of 3553 K. Silicon makes up 25.7% of the earth's crust by weight, and is the second most abundant element, exceeded only by oxygen. It is found largely as silicon oxides such as sand (silica), quartz, rock crystal, amethyst, agate, flint, jasper and opal. Silicon is found also in minerals such as asbestos, feldspar, clay and mica. Silicon is present in the sun and stars and is a principal component of a class of meteorites known as aerolites. Silicon is not found in nature independent of anything else. Silicon is important in plant and animal life. Diatoms in both fresh and salt water extract silica from the water to use as a component of their cell walls. ...read more.


Sulphuric acid has many uses, including for the synthesis of fertilisers and polyamides. It is used in batteries ("battery acid"). * Sulphur is a component of black gunpowder (a mixture of potassium nitrate, KNO3, carbon, and sulphur). It is used in the vulcanisation of natural rubber, as a fungicide, and as a fumigant. * Sulphur compounds are used in the bleaching of dried fruits and for paper products. Chlorine (Cl) Chlorine is a gas at room temperature taking on a greenish/yellow colour. Chlorine has a melting point of 172.22 K and a boiling point of 239.2 K. It is not conductive to heat or electricity. Chlorine is never found in nature as the free gas. It is found mainly as rock salt (common salt, halite, NaCl), carnallite (KMgCl3.6H2O), and sylvite (KCl). The following is some of the uses of Chlorine: * production of safe drinking water the world over. Even the smallest water supplies are now usually chlorinated * extensively used in the production of paper products, dye stuffs, textiles, petroleum products, medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, foodstuffs, solvents, paints, plastics, and many other consumer products * most chlorine is used in the manufacture of chlorinated cleaning compounds, pulp bleaching, disinfectants, and textile processing * manufacture of chlorates, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride * used for the extraction of bromine * PVC pipe used to provide safe drinking water Argon (Ar) Argon is a gas at room temperature. Argon is colourless; it is also inert. Argon has a melting point of 84 K and a boiling point of 87.3 K. It is not conductive to heat or electricity. Argon is present to a small extent in the atmosphere and is obtained as a by-product from the liquefaction and separation of air. This would not normally be carried out in the laboratory and argon is available commercially in cylinders at high pressure. The following is a list of some of the uses of Argon: * used in electric light bulbs and in fluorescent tubes at a pressure of about 3 mm, photo tubes, glow tubes, etc. ...read more.

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