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Photochemical smog contains Ozone (O3), a powerful oxidising agent. Ozone is formed when sunlight shines on primary pollutants.

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Introduction

Danielle Gibbins Photochemical smog contains Ozone (O3), a powerful oxidising agent. Ozone is formed when sunlight shines on primary pollutants. A primary pollutant is a pollutant released directly into the atmosphere. For example the primary pollutant NOx is emitted from vehicle exhausts and contains 95% NO and small amounts of NO2. 1 Ozone is what we call a secondary pollutant because it is formed when primary pollutants undergo further reactions. Other constituents of photochemical smog are given below. Living organisms contain sulphur compounds and because coal is formed from the gradual compacting of partially decomposed plant matter 3, coal also contains sulphur compounds. When the coal is burnt the sulphur compounds are converted to oxides of sulphur, which are primary pollutants. Also proteins in the organisms contained Nitrogen compounds and when the coal is burnt these are oxidised to form NOx, and at high temperatures used for combustion Nitrogen and Oxygen in the air combine to form thermal NOx. ...read more.

Middle

in the breakdown of Hydrocarbon. RCH3 + OH --> RCH2 + H2O RCH2 + O2 --> RCH2O2 RCH2O2 then reacts with NO: RCH2O2 + NO --> RCH2O + NO2 This reaction has converted NO back into NO2 which can be used in the reaction that forms O radicals that form O3. hv NO2 --> NO + O O2 + O --> O3 The OH radicals are formed from the following reactions: hv O3 --> O2 + O O + H2O --> 2OH So because one ozone molecule reacts to form two OH molecules, the ozone concentration increases during the production of photochemical smog.5 At Logannet the BPEO chosen to reduce SOX emissions is the sea scrubbing process. Flue gases are passed through sea water which naturally has a pH of about 7.5 the sulphur dioxide dissolves to form sulphite ions. ...read more.

Conclusion

Reburning zone Natural gas is injected into the boiler. The NOx reacts with the alkanes to produce Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide and water vapour. CH4 (g) + 4NO (g) --> 2N2 (g) + CO2 (g) + 2H2O (g) Burning zone Any excess alkane or CO produced is oxidised. 7 Research is still taking place to explain the complex chemistry involved in photochemical smog formation Chemists are monitoring tropospheric pollutants to find what pollutants are present and how their concentrations vary. There are several monitoring stations across the country. Individual reactions are also being studied in laboratories to find out what reactions can take place and how quickly they occur much of this work is done in computer simulation studies to reproduce the behaviour of pollutants in a photochemical episode. We can also do laboratory experiments of a larger scale in smog chamber simulations. Primary pollutants are mixed together in a clear plastic bag called a smog chamber and exposed to sunlight. Probes monitor the concentration of various species as the smog builds up.8 ...read more.

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