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Photosynthesis Analysis.

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Introduction

Photosynthesis Analysis For photosynthesis to take place a plant must be supplied with carbon dioxide and water. It also requires light, suitable temperature and the presence of chlorophyll. CO2 + H2O CH2O O2 Carbon water carbohydrate oxygen dioxide A plant that grows quickly will need more stomata to obtain more carbon dioxide in order to increase the rate of photosynthesis. Plant leaves are rather like solar panels, they are broad and flat to trap light from the sun. Leaves have large numbers of tiny holes called stomata. Carbon dioxide enters the leaf through these pores and diffuses directly into the cells that need it, Oxygen escapes by the same route. Stomata; Pores surrounded by two specialised cells, guard cells. Unlike other epidermal cells they contain chloroplasts. Most of the cellulose microfibrils of the cell wall run across Most of the cellulose microfibrils of the cell wall run across the width of the cell, this allows the two cells to bend and so open and close the pore. Successive exchange of gases by the leaf depends on stomata being open. These press and also allow water to escape by diffusion into the air (water in the gaps between the cells). It is then free to diffuse out stomata. In hot environments the evaporation of water in this way helps to cool the plant. However water lost has to be replaced and if water were reduced by closing the stomata this also inevitably reduces gas exchange. ...read more.

Middle

My null hypothesis is that is no difference between the white and green areas of the plant. My alternative null hypothesis that there is a difference between the no of stomata found in the green and white areas of variegated plants. I need the means of all the data collected for the 4 different species to begin the test. I will show 1 example of how the mean is found and the rest of the values I will put into a table. Mean =???n Heptapleurum: Green area: 42,38,34,36,32,39,41,38,32,39,47,37,27,42,47,48,46,38,38,31,33,43,43,40,41/24= 38.72 White area: 34,37,48,42,46,43,49,45,52,48,44,52,48,44,38,46,41,49,46,50,35,37,39,49/24= 44.25. To perform the t-test we also need the standard deviation. Formula: ? stands for the sum of ? refers to the individual values of the sample n is the total number of individual value in the sample It is much convenient to use the calculator to obtain the standard deviation. Using the Button. Species Total no of stomata counts Mean no of stomata counts Standard deviation Heptapleurum Green 24 38.72 5.45 White 24 44.25 5.33 Ilex Green 45 27.89 11.32 White 41 30.63 10.75 Hedera Green 40 44.05 10.15 White 33 50.30 10.45 Chlorophyta Green 32 17.53 5.04 White 21 4.71 5.99 Now I have my values to begin one of the t-test. I will show 1 test step by step and the rest I will work out using the formula. I will use the standard deviations to calculate significance of the difference between two means. Heptapleurum 1: Work out the mean of the green and white area. ...read more.

Conclusion

there should be more distribution off stomata here This rejects our null hypothesis and concludes that there is a difference between the no of stomata found in the green and white areas of a hedera plant. . Chlorophyta Degrees of freedom: 32 + 21 =53 50= 2.01 60 =2.00 17.53-4.71 1.589 = 8.104 8.104 is much greater than the t value this means we are definitely at least 95% confident that the mean no of stomata from green and white areas differs, so therefore we reject the null hypothesis. Using the graph and the table constructed we can clearly see that there is a significant difference between the number of stomata found in the green area to the white area. As we know light energy is trapped by photosynthetic pigments. Different pigments absorb different wavelengths of light. Chlorophylls reflect green light, which is why plants look green. The green areas contain both chlorophylls a and b. Caratenoids are the other photosynthetic pigments which are found in the white area of the plants but do not absorb light as much as the chlorophylls, which is why there is a higher rate of photosynthesis taking place here resulting into a higher region of stomata in the green areas of the chlorophyta. We can conclude there is a difference between the no of stomata in the green and white areas of chlorophyta specie. My research and conclusion was drawn from two other modules from the concepts biology module, using the transport and photosynthesis topics and the a level biology book written by Sandra Dawns. ...read more.

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