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# Physics - Delphi Automotives Needle Lift.

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Introduction

AS Physics Coursework Unit 3: Delphi Automotives Needle Lift: A Fuel injector is electronically controlled valve, which contains amongst other things a tightly coiled spring and a needle (see diagram: however this is a electromagnetic fuel injection system). A pump connected to the fuel injector pushes highly pressurised fuel down to the bottom of the injector, causing pressure to build up. When the pressure reaches around 1600 bar (1,600,000,000 Nm-2), the needle is forced upwards, creating a hole in the injector. The fuel then, moves from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure, dispersing. The tiny nozzle is designed to atomise the fuel, which aids combustion (due to greater surface area). This process is completed a vast number of times per second. Diagram: For many years the Hall effect was not applied practically due to the generated voltage in the metal was so extremely low. ...read more.

Middle

Some metals even give a potential difference of the opposite polarity. This statement can be seen when comparing the two substances Copper and p-type Germanium. n/m-3 RH/m3C-1 Typical VH Copper (Cu) 1029 -5 x 10-11 1 p-type Germanium (Ge) 1020 +10-2 104 The above table shows that even though the metal Copper does have a greater number of charge carriers, the semi-conductor, Geranium still has a greater Hall Voltage. This is due to the other variables of the Hall effect. These are the width of the material, the strength of the magnetic field, and the strength of the current passing through the material, which could all constitute to a higher or lower Hall Voltage. In Delphi Automotives, the Hall effect was used to collect results when testing their fuel injectors. ...read more.

Conclusion

The valve then closes and remains in this position for the time B, also fully variable with common rail. There is a problem however with the speed of the movement that occurs with the needle. This is that as the needle touches the bottom, it recoils slightly up and if the pressure is not enough to keep it down (from the coiled spring) the valve may become open once more. This would allow an increased influx of diesel from the pump, which will never be burned as the piston by this time will be on the down stroke and to will be ejected on the exhaust stroke and measured as unwanted hydrocarbons (as discuss above). For this reason Delphi tries it's utmost to minimise this effect to increase the efficiency of the diesel engine and reduce the level of harmful/noxious gases released from the exhaust. ...read more.

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