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Science + Chemistry revision + Electrostatics

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Introduction

Science – Revision notes (ELECTROSTATICS)

Electrostatics is the study of electrically charged objects.

Insulators can be charged by friction.Conductors can be charged by making contact with another charged object or through induction.

Only Insulators can hold on to static charges. In conductors the charge leak away.

A charged object can induce charges on nearby objects.

Unit of Charge is the Coulomb

Charges of friction are very small so we work in smaller units.

MILLIcoulomb-

MICROcoulomb-

NANOcoulomb-

PICOcoulomb

The smallest quantity of charge is on an electron. The proton and electron have equal charges but of opposite signs.

Conservation of Charge

Charge cannot be created or destroyed. It can only be moved from one object to another. When two charged objects are brought together electrons will flow from where there are too many to where there are too few. The charge is distributed over both objects and when they are separated they will have equal charges.(when objects have same shape and surface area)

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Middle

Field lines never cross, their direcetion is from positive to negative.They always begin and end at right angles to a surface.

When a charged object is moved into an electric field it gains electrical gravitational energy equal to the amount of work done to  move it. When the charged object is released it will change from electrical potential energy to kinetic energy.

Potential difference

Potential difference between two points is the work done to move 1 coulomb between the points.

V=potential difference

W=work or energy

V=volt

1C=1V=1J

Electrons flow from points of low potential to points of high potential. They flow up the potential gradient.

Positive charges flow down the potential gradient.

Capacitors

A simple capacitor consists of two parallel metal plates separated by an insulating material

This insulating material is called a dielectric

Capacitor stores charge.

Used to prevent the flow of direct currents.

Storing memory on a computer and in a camera flash.

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Conclusion

Electromagnets only work when there is current flowing because soft iron does not retain its magnetism.

Electromagnetic induction

The process of producing the EMF and the current is called electromagnetic induction.

The faster we move the magnetic through the coil the faster the EMF and the larger the current.

The moil coils, the faster the emf and more current

Faradays law.

The emf induced in a coil increases with the rate of change of flux linkage..

The more field lines that are cut per second the larger the emf and induced current.

Induced current is cuurent that is created when a magnet is moved in and out of a solenoid.

Magnetic flux is total number of field lines passing through an area. Calculated by times magnetic field strength by area through which flux passes.

Change of flux linkage is change in number of field lines passing across a conductor.

Rate of change in flux linkage is the rate in which lines are cut.  

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