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# GCSE: Electricity and Magnetism

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• Marked by Teachers essays 19
• Peer Reviewed essays 18
1. ## Experimental Verification of Ohm's Law

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* Ammeters and Voltmeters have terminals marked + and - which must be connected correctly to the battery. Only close the switch when you are sure that you have wired the circuit properly. * Close the switch and smoothly adjust the rheostat from minimum resistance to maximum resistance and at regular intervals note the meter reading and hence obtain a set of values from the two meters (at least 6). * Divide the Voltage by the current to get Resistance and tabulate the results in a table as shown below Current, I (A) Voltage, V (V) Voltage/Current , R (?)

• Word count: 643
2. ## An investigation into the efficiency of an immersion heater 2

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I will use the following formula to calculate the immersion heater's efficiency. Energy supplied 100% Energy produced Method: Circuit diagram The apparatus and circuit were set up and arranged as shown in my diagrams above The measurements I will take are as follows: * initial temperature of water * amps after 2 minutes * volts after 2 minutes * temperature of water after 2 minutes To get a fair and average result I will change the type of wire I

• Word count: 524
3. ## An Investigation Into The Resistance Of Conductive Putty

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I will need the light bulb to show if the circuit is complete. The battery pack is control the electrical currant and the crocodile clip and wire to carry the currant. Safety The first danger is the power of the electrical currant. To prevent any danger of electrical shocks I will use the battery pack to control the strength of the currant and turn it down to four cells.

• Word count: 565
4. ## Resistance of a Wire

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Material of wire - wires of different densities will block more or less electrons Temperature - the vibration of warm molecules makes them more likely to collide with electrons, and resistance increases with temperature. Variables Independent- length Dependent - Voltage, current to measure, resistance Controlled - Temperature, material of wire, cross sectional area Circuit diagram Method 1. set up apparatus as shown above 2. measure out a 1m length piece of wire and connect it to the crocodile clips 3. close the switch 4. set the variable resistor so that you get a less biased result- below 0.5 amps 5.

• Word count: 954
5. ## Resistance of a wire

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TRIAL 1 Length (cm) Voltage (V) Current (A) Resistance (?) 100 6,4 7,2 0,888888889 90 6,3 7,7 0,818181818 80 6,2 8,7 0,712643678 70 6,3 10,2 0,617647059 60 6,1 11,5 0,530434783 50 6,1 13,7 0,445255474 40 6,15 16,8 0,366071429 30 5,83 21,8 0,267431193 20 5,71 29,3 0,194880546 TRIAL 2 Length (cm) Voltage (V) Current (A) Resistance (?) 100 6,4 7,3 0,876712329 90 6,4 8,1 0,790123457 80 6,67 9 0,741111111 70 6,28 9,9 0,634343434 60 6,32 11,9 0,531092437 50 6,28 14,2 0,442253521 40 6,12 17,3 0,353757225 30 6,09 22,4 0,271875 20 5,9 32,9 0,179331307 TRIAL 3 Length (cm)

• Word count: 874
6. ## Investigation of Resistance in a Nichrome 32 Wire

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The collisions that occur produce heat energy which is caused by friction. I predict that if you double the length of the wire the resistance will also double. Fair Test: To make this a fair test I will keep certain variables the same, only changing the length of wire. The variables I will keep the same consist of the power supply so I don't send more power to the electrons to go around, and temperature so that it doesn't affect the resistance of the wire because increase of the temperature increases the resistance of the wire.

• Word count: 875
7. ## Q. How is resistance affected by changing the length of a piece of nichrome wire in a simple circuit?

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It is a very thin wire so it slows down the flow of electrons and takes energy away from the electrons as they struggle to get through it. The energy is then changed to heat and light. Current: The flow of electrons in a circuit is called the CURRENT. Current is measured using an ammeter. Current is measured in units called AMPS. Voltage: Voltage is the amount of energy that the electrons have. It is measured using a voltmeter. Voltage is measured in units called VOLTS.

• Word count: 762
8. ## Ionization energies

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positive charge from the nucleus remains unchanged, however, there is less repulsion between the remaining electrons INVESTIGATION: Periodic trends in ionization energies First ionization energies as a function of atomic number * 1.Within each period (row) the ionization energy typically increases with atomic number * 2.Within each group (column) the ionization energy typically decreases with increasing atomic number HYPOTHESIS: * Investigation 1: As the effective charge increases, or as the distance of the electron from the nucleus decreases, the greater the attraction between the nucleus and the electron.

• Word count: 479
9. ## My prediction for this experiment is that the longer the length of the wire, the higher the resistance and the shorter the length of the wire, the lower the resistance.

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Then the crocodile clips were added on the other ends of the leads. Then we moved along the 100cm wire every 20cm. We then did this three times. Results: Length of wire Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Average Resistance (cm) R R R R 20 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.46 40 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 60 12.1 12 12 12.03 80 16.1 16 16 16.03 100 19 18.9 19 19 To find the average resistance, the equation I used was: Average = Resistance Test 1 + Resistance Test 2 + Resistance Test 3 3 Apparatus List: * 5 leads *

• Word count: 667
10. ## Decay of charge

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Q/C = IR (Q: charge on the capactior, I :discharge current) Q = CRI = -CR(dQ/dt) (dt/CR) = -(dQ/Q) Q = Q0e(-t/CR) (Q0 is the initial charge) The charge on the capactior decays exponentially against time. I = V/R = Q/CR = (Q0/CR) e(-t/CR) = I0 e(-t/CR) Therefore, the discharge current is also decay exponentially against time. The product of resistance and capacitance, CR, is called the time constant.

• Word count: 557
11. ## Resistance of wire. My results also suggest that the resistance is directly proportional to the length of the wire.

A component will only obey Ohm's law at a constant temperature. This is because a higher temperature causes the atoms in the component to vibrate. This leads to a greater amount of collisions with the electrons and the atoms increasing the resistance. Due to this the wire must be left to cool down between tests. My results show a positive correlation between the length of the wire and the resistance as when the length of the wire increases so does the resistance.

• Word count: 854
12. ## Aim: To investigate the resistance of the 3 different types of wires, constantan, copper and nichrome, by using 1 set of circuit.

Melting point is 1084.62 �C. Has high conductivity. Nichrome A nickel-chromium alloys with high electrical resistance and an ability to withstand high temperatures; used for resistance heating elements. The melting point is 1400�C. Has low conductivity. Hypothesis: I predict the copper wire has the lowest resistance. It is because as copper has higher conductivity, the current go through more smoothly so that there are less resisting occurs. Variable: Independent- Types of wire Dependent- Resistance Control variable Variable How Why Length Keep every wires in same length Because resistance change in length Diameter Keep every wires in same diameter Because resistance change in diameter Voltage (power supply)

• Word count: 677
13. ## Magnetism Essay

In things that aren't magnetic, electrons send their magnetic pull in different directions, leading to failure. In metals that are magnetic, the electrons are all facing the same way. To see if a piece of metal is magnetic, you have to see if it repels another magnet, not attract. Magnets can also lose it's magnetism if it is heated. Every magnet has a north and south pole. The north pole, also known as the north-seeking pole, attracts the south pole/south-seeking pole, while it repels the same pole.

• Word count: 683
14. ## Physics Coursework: Factors affecting resistance of a wire. Hypothesis I think that as you increase the length of the wire, you also increase the amount of resistance.

Method: 1. Collect apparatus: a voltmeter, an ammeter, 5x wires, 2 crocodile clips, 10, 20 and 40 cm of both nichrome and copper wires and a power pack. 2. Set apparatus as shown in the diagram 3. Set the power supply on a low voltage possible. (So that there is not too high a current passing through the circuit.) 4. Create a resistor by placing the ruler horizontally on the table and laying the 1 m wire on top of it use securing tape on both ends leaving just a small place to connect the voltmeter.

• Word count: 694
15. ## AL Practical Physics Exam questions - Studying electric field between two parallel metal plates

(a) Place it mid-way between the plates and move it across the plates. The deflection remains the same except that the deflection decreases near the edge of the plates. (b) Move it parallel to the electric field. The deflection remains the same. (c) Move it very close to the plates. The deflection increases slightly since the charge on the foil attracts those of opposite charge onto the part of the plate opposite to it. (d) Move it around between the metal plates to explore the electric field. The deflection remains the same in all directions since the electric force on the foil and hence the electric field remain constant.

• Word count: 660
16. ## Physics coursework - resistance of nichrome wire

Long wires are more resistant than short wires because there are more electrons in a longer wire. Resistance cannot be measured, however you can calculate resistance with a formula ( voltage = current x resistance ). To calculate resistance you need to know voltage and current when you find these two you divide them, then you know what resistance is. Resistance increases whenever the current flows in a wire (when It heats up) it happens as a result of energy loss. PREDICTION; I predict that that the longer the wire is the higher the resistance, because there will be more free atoms colliding with eachother.

• Word count: 589
17. ## GCSE Physics Static Electricity

* When two electrically charged materials are brought together, they exert a force on each other. Materials with the same charge repel each other whereas materials with different charges attract each other. * Current is the rate of flow of electrical charge. Electrical charge can easily flow through metals because they contain conduction (delocalised) electrons. These electrons are not confined to a single atom. This is the reason why metals are food conductors of electricity. Insulators cannot conduct electricity because all the electrons are held within atoms * A charged body can be discharged safely by connecting it to earth with a conductor (e.g.

• Word count: 745
18. ## How does the resistance of nichrome wire depend on its length?

I will do this for different lengths of nichrome, simultaneously recording my results. Nichrome Wire Length List of materials used: 1. Wire cutters 2.

• Word count: 312
19. ## Circuit Breakers. A circuit breaker is a device that automatically breaks an electrical circuit whenever the circuit becomes overloaded or an unintentional short circuit occurs.

An unintentional short circuit occurs when electricity traverses a path that is different from what has been intended. This usually happens when the insulating material or layer between two conductive materials breaks down or when a conductive material is directly introduced between these two conductive materials. This results in an unintended direct flow of charge from one node to another. This may result in overheating, circuit damage, explosion, and even fire.

• Word count: 475
20. ## Description of an Electric Bell

They can be found in electric motors and loudspeakers. Powerful electromagnets are used as lifting magnets in scrap yards. Another use an electromagnet is an electric bell used in most schools. When the switch is turned on, the current flows through the circuit and the electromagnet makes a magnetic field, therefore the electromagnet then attracts the striker (metal arm)

• Word count: 155
21. ## Charging a capacitor at a constant rate

, where I is a constant. Then is also constant. Hence the potential difference across the capacitor increases linearly with time. Procedure 1. The circuit was connected as shown in the figure below. The CRO was set to d.c. and the sensitivity to 1 V/cm. 2. The time base was set to any high value so that a steady horizontal trace is displayed. The trace was shifted to the bottom of the screen. 3. The capacitor was shorted out by connecting a lead across it and adjust the 100 k ? potentiometer for a suitable current, say 80 ?A.

• Word count: 606
22. ## C20 Inductor's behaviour.DOC

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23. ## OHM's prac report

Set the voltmeter to 1 volts and place the lead in the 5 OHM's resistor 4. Turn to the Power Pack and record the reading on the ammeter 5. Repeat step 3 and 4 2 more times. 6. Change the volts to 3,5,7,9,11,13 and 15, remembering to only record with the 5 OHM's resistor. 7. Record the results using the 5 OHM resistor 8. Repeat steps 4 - 7 but instead of using the 5 OHM's resistor, use 10 OHM's, 18 OHM's and 56OHM's resistors 9. Clean up all equipment and analyze the results Results: Current (A)

• Word count: 915
24. ## Copper Wire- Physics Investigation

I will get a minimum length and a maximum range, get the volts and the amps and use the equation to work out the resistance of that particular length of wire. Preliminary experiment: 40cm Voltage = 0.06v Amps = 0.09A Resistance = 0.06�0.09 Resistance = 0.67? (rounded up to 2 D.p.) 90cm voltage = 0.15 Amps = 0.08 Resistance = 0.06�0.08 Resistance = 1.88(rounded up to 2 D.p.) This has now given me a range of lengths to do between 40cm to 90cm of wire Method (continued): I then decide to do lengths of 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90cm.

• Word count: 690
25. ## Measuring the wavelength of a magnet

The solenoid needs to be put in upside down. Hook the spring onto the clamp and then attach the bar magnet. The bar magnet needs to be hanging down so that it is 1/4 of the way down on the magnet or 3/4 of the way down in the magnet (as shown in the diagram below). Adjust the boss clamp so the bar magnet hangs down in a perfectly central position in the solenoid. Then attach the 20g weight to the bar magnet. Connect the connecting leads into the solenoid and then connect both leads into the voltmeter.

• Word count: 527