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GCSE: The Earth and Beyond

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 5
  • Peer Reviewed essays 24
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Stars, Supernova and Black holes

    4 star(s)

    The sun is a star, like the other stars it is a ball of very hot gas. The sun gives us huge amounts of energy into space. The energy that keeps the sun shining is produced in its centre or core. The pressure in the core is enormous, and the temperature reaches 15 million degrees centre grade. Under these conditions, atoms of hydrogen gas join together to form another gas called helium. This process is called nuclear fusion. The sun is a very important star in the sky, the sun not only lights and heats the earth and it is in the centre of the solar system with the planets orbiting around it.

    • Word count: 809
  2. Marked by a teacher

    'Sheenagh Pugh presents us with a Sad View of the Future and a Grim Warning of What Could Be. Discuss How She Does This, Paying Particular Attention to the way She Uses Mood and Language and how She Organizes the Poem.'

    4 star(s)

    The poem is set out as 24 short-worded lines and is also written in a free-flowing verse just like 'Do you think we'll ever get to see earth sir?'. The poem creates a sad atmosphere, by using phrases such as 'not back to port'. This shows that they, the survivors, are trying not to feel sad and are not looking back. They are looking forward to the place that they are going and the future that they will have. In line 2, one of the survivors says 'at least that was the name scratched on the smooth door', which creates sound in the poem - sibilance - the use of the 's' on 'scratched' and 'smooth'.

    • Word count: 1823
  3. Marked by a teacher

    My project this year is based on the solar system. In my project I will discuss the theory behind the start of the solar system. I will also describe the sun and planets moving round it.

    4 star(s)

    It is also possible that the planets were never a part of the hot Sun itself. They may have come from the remainder of an exploding star (supernova) that happened near the Sun. The planetary orbits are elliptical in shape and all lie in one plane except Mercury and Pluto whose orbits are tilted at an orbit of 7?and 17?. All the planets move the same direction. Asteroids and comets move in a completely different plane. Planets are recognised in the night sky because they shine with a steadier light than the twinkling stars.

    • Word count: 4431
  4. Marked by a teacher

    What do we know with absolute certainty ?

    3 star(s)

    In Southern Africa the people which lived there for their whole life don't know the true meaning of the word seasons because there are no seasons in Africa its just day and night. A similar example can be the Antarctic which is icy throughout the year and u don't notice if it is spring or summer. Another fact that we know with absolute certainty is that we cannot breathe as soon as we leave the atmosphere, but how can we really tell that we cannot breather as soon as we leave the atmosphere?

    • Word count: 614
  5. Marked by a teacher

    How Successful is Graham Greene as a story teller? Referring to both stories in your answer, indicate the one you prefer and why - I spy and All but Empty

    3 star(s)

    Greene also uses real situations that could arise such as peer pressure on the value of smoking. Also the language is correct for the early twentieth century because old-fashioned words and phrases are used. To give the correct atmosphere the writer uses words and phrases such as "the walls were dark" which creates an atmosphere when Charlie Stow is about to get up. "No sense of safety" is when Charlie is going down the stairs to the shop, when "Charlie cowered in the darkness" is when he hid under the shop counter and lay under a "haze of smoke" this describes the place where Charlie was, and you could imagine what It must have been like.

    • Word count: 640
  6. Peer reviewed

    Concepts of the universe creation

    4 star(s)

    In 1965, Radioastronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered a 2.725 degree Kelvin (-454.765 degree Fahrenheit, -270.425 degree Celsius) Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) which pervades the observable universe. This is thought to be the remnant which scientists were looking for. Penzias and Wilson shared in the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics for their discovery. * Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" Hydrogen and Helium found in the observable universe are thought to support the Big Bang model of origins.

    • Word count: 1426
  7. Peer reviewed

    To determine the refractive index of glass

    4 star(s)

    The table should contain 8 rows excluding the column titles. 2. The rectangular prism is placed at the middle of the top of the page and its perimeter is traced with the help of the ruler and pencil. The normal is soon after marked out in the approximate centre of the perimeter using the protractor at the 90 degrees point. The operation is then repeated at the middle of the bottom of the page and finally to the back of the page.

    • Word count: 560
  8. Peer reviewed

    The Life Cycle of the Stars

    4 star(s)

    In the Hierarchy of the universe, stars play an important role. They are huge bodies that have come into being from great clouds of light elements, either with the stars forming simultaneously, or in later evolution of the galaxies. When a star is born out of enormous clouds of gas and dust, they come together into a gigantic ball. Then there is the pressure from all the gas and dust banging into each other and it can reach millions of degrees in temperature.

    • Word count: 1184
  9. Peer reviewed

    Solar Energy

    4 star(s)

    In this essay I will explain how we humans take the use of solar energy. The advantages and drawbacks of this energy and how essential and useful solar energy is to our modern global society. Solar Thermal Energy Form of Energy: Thermal energy This energy is used for: Cooking/Heating, Drying/Timber seasoning, Distillation, Electricity/Power generation, Cooling, Refrigeration, Cold storage Some of the gadgets and other devices: Solar cooker, Flat plate solar cookers, Concentrating collectors, Solar hot water systems (Domestic and Industrial), Solar pond, Solar hot air systems, Solar Dryers, Solar timber kilns, solar stills, Solar photovoltaic systems, Solar pond, Concentrating collectors,

    • Word count: 1670
  10. Peer reviewed

    What types of problems and effects are been forced upon the planet with modern technology and the increasing population and what can be done to make the planet healthier?

    4 star(s)

    Paper which is made from trees should not be wasted and recycled when finished with. In order to prevent unnecessary usage of the planets resources' recycling helps to curb the effects of deforestation. Whenever a person uses a car or forgets to switch their television off at the mains, leaving the little red light to waste energy, a thought should be spared for the millions of men women and children that survive every day in third world countries who have quite possibly never seen a television. If every commuter car in the U.S. transported an extra person, it would save eight billion gallons of fuel a year.

    • Word count: 1295
  11. Peer reviewed

    Is the human race on a collision course for its own destruction’?

    4 star(s)

    This fact maybe false by religious standards but it is the most likely solution to the problem of how we came to be. For Christian people we were came to be by an omnipotent being that took out the time to create two people, Adam and Eve, and I think that this is a good example of peoples delusions of supremacy. For thousands of years now man and woman have played an overwhelming part in the development of this planet usually with the misconception that Earth is theirs and theirs alone and everything else is just here for are needs.

    • Word count: 671
  12. Peer reviewed

    The planets and the universe

    4 star(s)

    The sun was formed from a large blob at the center of a cloud. As time passed bye the sun became large enough to collect most of the hydrogen gas surrounding it and to pull smaller objects into orbit. Deep inside the blob the gases became more and more squashed. Eventually, the pressure and temperature became high enough to push hydrogen nuclei together to form helium nuclei. This process is called Nuclear Fusion and it releases a huge amount of energy. Once nuclear fusion has started, the blob had become a star-the sun. How a star is formed Stars are formed from massive clouds of dust and gas in space.

    • Word count: 945
  13. Peer reviewed

    Astronomical observation

    4 star(s)

    2.Describe the observed motion of the sun in the sky each day, and how this varies over the year, at different latitudes. From the earth the sun is seen to rise in the east, arc across the sky, and set in the west. However this is only an apparent motion, which happens because the earth spins on its axis from west to east.

    • Word count: 374
  14. Peer reviewed

    What is dark matter?

    3 star(s)

    However our galaxies have clusters that are invisible, meaning we can't see it. This invisible matter is classified as "dark matter". The term "dark matter" was forged by Fritz Zwicky who discovered evidence for missing mass in galaxies in the 1930s. I shall explain more about him later on in this essay. How can identify dark matter? [2] When we think of the universe, we only think of what we can see, not what we can't see. With technological advances, astronomers can use great telescopes to see what the naked human eye can't see, such as light in the electromagnetic spectrum.

    • Word count: 804
  15. Peer reviewed

    Galileo and the moon

    3 star(s)

    At first he was rejected, and a mathematician stated that the moon was covered in 'invisible, transparent, smooth crystal.' Also Galileo said that the Moon like the Earth consisted of valleys and Mountains and that the dark spots were created by the Sun producing shadows. Then using his 30x power telescope Galileo focused on Jupiter and found three stars all in a straight line to each other.

    • Word count: 464
  16. Free essay

    Physics Research and Report - What is Antimatter?

    3 star(s)

    In other words it will be total destruction or complete obliteration. It produces pure energy, which can be dangerous if not contained properly, though if it is it can be useful in more ways than one. After annihilation, charge, momentum and energy are all conserved. Why is there more Matter than Antimatter? There is a substantial amount more Matter in the universe than there is Antimatter. One of the reasons why this could be is: In the first few moments of the universe, the Antimatter might have decayed differently than their regular Matter counterparts.

    • Word count: 1095
  17. Peer reviewed

    Analysis of our Solar System

    3 star(s)

    These nine major planets in order from the centre are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. Mercury is the planet nearest to the Sun. As it orbits the Sun, it does not rotate, keeping the same face of the planet toward the Sun at all times. This means that one side of the planet has a continual burning day of 900�F, and the other side a continual night and a deadly cold of 450�F below zero. Mercury is the fastest travelling of the nine planets making one full orbit around the Sun in only eight days.

    • Word count: 1447
  18. Peer reviewed

    A biography of Stephen Hawking.

    3 star(s)

    Stephen Hawking Biography Stephen Hawking was born on 1942 January 8th in Oxford, England. He was the oldest of 4 children in his family. His family lived in London in the 1950s When Stephen was only a little boy he loved things with moving parts and he loved to take things apart and see how they worked. When Stephen was just a kid he liked to build robot controlled boats and airplanes. Stephen was a very bright child, but he did not do very well in school. He didn't learn to read until he was eight years old, his work was usually very messy and he hardly ever studied.

    • Word count: 1073
  19. Peer reviewed

    The Life Of A Star

    3 star(s)

    Stage 2 - A region of condensing matter will begin to heat up and start to glow forming a Protostar. If a protostar contains enough matter of hydrogen the central temperature reaches 15 million degrees centigrade. Stage 3 - At this temperature, nuclear reactions in which hydrogen fuses to form helium will start. Stage 4 - The star begins to release energy, stopping it from contracting even more and causes it to shine.

    • Word count: 588
  20. Peer reviewed

    evolution of the atmosphere

    3 star(s)

    More nitrogen was also produced from the methane and ammonia reacting with oxygen. * During the last billion years or so a lot has changed. The build up of oxygen has taken place and more complex organisms are around to make use of the oxygen the ozone layer has been created which blocks the suns harmful raise. The most important change would be how the amount of carbon dioxide has decrease and there is virtually none left. Today's Atmosphere The atmosphere today is perfect for us. However there is a worry that we maybe changing it for the worst by releasing various gases from industrial activity.

    • Word count: 764
  21. Peer reviewed

    green house effect

    3 star(s)

    greenhouse effect, which results from gases emitted as a result of human activities (see also global warming, scientific opinion on climate change and attribution of recent climate change). The Basic Mechanism The Earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of radiation. To the extent that the Earth is in a steady state, the energy stored in the atmosphere and ocean does not change in time, so energy equal to the incident solar radiation must be radiated back to space.

    • Word count: 519
  22. Peer reviewed

    Black Hole

    3 star(s)

    At that point, light particles would not be able to leave the surface of the star, and it would blink out and become an invisible black star. More than a century later, Albert Einstein, in his special theory of relativity, maintained that nothing can move faster than light. This means that Laplace's black stars are also black holes, because if light cannot escape, all other matter must be trapped as well. The surface of the black hole thus acts like a one-way membrane: material may fall into a black hole, but no information or energy can come out of a black hole.

    • Word count: 1086
  23. Peer reviewed

    Global Warming - Is it man Made?

    This temperature increase is something that happens naturally, although it is also contributed to by human activity. The natural process that leads to global warming is called 'the greenhouse effect' and this is where gases in the atmosphere such as methane and carbon dioxide build up and retain heat from the sun in the atmosphere, therefore increasing the overall temperature of the earth. This process is called the greenhouse effect and is necessary for the survival of all life on our planet. Due to a larger increase of average global temperatures people are pointing at human activity for speeding up this process to a degree that is deemed unsafe, evidence of this is the melting of the polar icecaps and subsequent rises in sea levels.

    • Word count: 4913
  24. Jupiter is the 5th planet from the sun and it is the biggest planet in our Solar System.

    and the shortest distance is 741 million kilometers (460 million miles). Jupiter has a thick atmosphere made of hydrogen, helium, methane, ammonia, and sulfur. But gravity is the biggest part of Jupiter. The gravity is 2.6 that of Earth. So if you weighed 36 kilograms (80 pounds) on Earth you would weigh 94 kilograms (208 pounds) on Jupiter. But its gravitational pull is so strong it can push you down till you get crushed. Jupiter is the biggest planet in the Solar System.

    • Word count: 514
  25. Science research project. Mahoney John holds the view that human space exploration is the way to go especially in this era of new scientific and technological innovations.

    But I think I've managed to trace them back to a single source: the four astronauts inside Atlantis. As of today, the United States no longer has the capacity to put humans into space. Three decades of doing it several times a year are over. So what now? Part of that answer is an ambitious program of unmanned missions beginning this year. But having witnessed space flight from an entirely different perspective this weekend, I'm hooked on humans in space. NASA needs to regain the capacity to fly astronauts into orbit and beyond as soon as possible. I surprised myself by becoming so emotional as Atlantis faded out of sight beyond the cloud ceiling.

    • Word count: 1738

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