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# GCSE: The Earth and Beyond

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1. ## The Extinction of the Dinosaurs - reviewing 3 theories.

This case study is aimed at the general public, and for people who do not know very much about dinosaurs, but are interested. This could include students as intelligent as the average year 9 or above as well as adults. An example of a dinosaur fossil (taken from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1352871.stm) One theory that explains why the dinosaurs became extinct is the Asteroid theory. This theory is one of the most common and widely believed theories about extinction of the dinosaurs. Although asteroids are rare, the theory is that an asteroid hit the Earth, ending dust and steam into the atmosphere.

• Word count: 3412
2. ## Aim: -to explain how Einstein predicted the possibility of releasing enormous amounts of energy. -explain how scientists use theories to make predictions.

a. how will the mass of the products compare with the mass of the uranium nucleus? The mass of the products will be less than the mass of the uranium nucleus. b.what prediction did Lise Meitner make about the amount of energy that would be released? By using Einstein's equation (E=mc�), she calculated that the fission reaction would release a million times more energy than a chemical reaction. 4. give an example, other than the special theory of relativity, of theories that can make predictions. Another very successful and strong theory is Newton's laws of motion which still continues to predict the paths of satellites and space rockets successfully.

• Word count: 768
3. ## The Solar System speech. Now when I say universe, youre probably thinking Im referring to the solar system. In fact most people would immediately suggest that the solar system is our universe.

Even with scientists most powerful instruments,We are still limited to only view a portion of it. But despite the fact that we can only see a part of the universe, it is still an incredible achievement in science if you ask me. The universe is believed by scientists to be finite, by this I mean it definitely had a start. Now, scientists claim that in the beginning there was a big bang that started it all, but I beg to differ. I believe God created the universe and everything in it. I mean it's only common sense that nothing+nothing=nothing, so obviously there had to be something to cause that nothing to become something.

• Word count: 836
4. ## The continental conversation: the theory of continental drift

We all know the crinkly surface Islands, where the present climate of the earth is caused by the shrinkage would have killed them off help to of the surface as it cooled down after prove his theory of continental drift.

• Word count: 297
5. ## Why we cant live on other planets

* Scotia Plate The crust is a very thin layer made from the plate tectonics around the Earth, its equivalent in deepness from Liverpool to Manchester around 70km deep. The Mantle of Earth is chemically divided into layers, between the mantle and the crust it is viscous (a thick liquid). Earths mantle is a rocky surface and consists of 84 percent of the planets volume. The inner core of Earth is a solid layer that has a average temperature of around 5500 degrees Celsius.

• Word count: 952
6. ## Space - Should the costing be spent?

This proves I will be using a vast range of sources which I have selected, however most are screen-based as these are constantly being updated throughout key advancements. Space The universe contains everything - all of space and time and all the matter and energy within it. The universe is unknowably vast, and ever since it formed, it has been expanding, carrying some of its most distant regions forever beyond the naked eye. The universe contains everything from the smallest atom to the largest galaxy cluster and yet it seems they all have the same laws.

• Word count: 1537
7. ## Naina The Big Bang

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Before the Big Bang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

• Word count: 2399
8. ## Satellites Physics Coursework

Its function, as stated, was used to broadcast television, it was also the satellite which telecasted the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo on only its first year of orbit. Another more famous satellite is the TIROS-1, considered the first successful weather satellite, it was launched on the 1st of April 1960, and had an almost circular orbit around the Earth. In its 78 days of orbit it took 22,952 images, which was extremely successful as it gave a very good view at how the weather changes from above, and was a great help in the development of other weather satellites and the way in which the weather was read.

• Word count: 708
9. ## Science Case Study - Dinosaurs

Extinction can naturally occur; through an asteroid hitting the Earth, a huge volcanic eruption, disease or an ice age. However modern extinctions are mainly caused by human activity, directly or indirectly. For example the passenger pigeon of North America was hunted to extinction; this was directly due to human activity. As I stated before sometimes animals can become extinct due to human activity indirectly. A good example of this would be the Blue pike from the Great Lakes in Canada that became extinct in the 1970's.

• Word count: 4179
10. ## life on earth

These blobs are called microspheres and were not real cells but they were able to replicate themselves and reproduce. Energy from the sun and from lightning produced chemical reactions in the air that formed very complex molecules like nucleotides and amino acids. These are the building blocks of DNA (genes). Later pressure and heat in its center pushed up solid portions of the earth that became land forms. Sometimes the land would sink back down and other portions arise. Earth before life was completely different from what humankind knows today. The volcanic activity, lighting, and radiation were more severe, it was inhabitable.

• Word count: 1217
11. ## Copper Mining

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12. ## Physics crater investigation

This will make my results all the more reliable and accurate. Meter Ruler - To measure the height we drop the marble from we will use a meter ruler with increments of 1 cm. This is the perfect scale and size for me because I need it to go up to at least 60 cm and am planning to use increments of 5 cm. Standard 30 cm Ruler - To measure the size of the crater I will be using a 30 cm standard ruler.

• Word count: 2472
13. ## continental drift

* Radio active decay in the mantle produces enough heat for convection currents. * Fossils of very similar plants and animals have been found on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean. * The rocks match - Broad belts of rocks in Africa and South America are the same type * Continental ice sheet covered parts of South America, southern Africa, India, and southern Australia. At the time none believed his theory as: * No-one could provide a good explanation of how whole continents could move apart.

• Word count: 578
14. ## continental drift

The rest of the Earth was covered with one huge ocean. Before Wegener's theory, it was believed mountains formed because the Earth was cooling down, and in doing so contracted. It then formed wrinkles, or mountains, in the Earth's crust. Similar to this apple. However this is not true, because if the idea was correct, mountains would be spread evenly over the Earth's surface. Wegener revealed that mountains are actually formed as the border of two drifting continents crash into each other causing one to fold in on its self.

• Word count: 758
15. ## Case study: Evolution or creation

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16. ## Mars - The red planet

Mars gets its red colour from the iron oxide (chemical name for rust) in the rocks and soil of its surface. The iron oxide comes from the iron particles that have been oxidised in the atmosphere of carbon dioxide. It has a canyon deeper than that of America's Grand Canyon, Valles Marineris (nicknamed Mars' Grand Canyon) and is up to 7 kilometres deep and 4,000 kilometres long, compared to just about 1.5 kilometres of the Grand Canyon in America. The highest volcano, Olympus Mons, is nearly 4 times the height of Mount Everest in the Himalayas, reaching up to a

• Word count: 3830
17. ## Energy Resources

Renewable resources are extremely expensive; however the technology is getting cheaper. For developing countries who will use the most fuel renewable forms of electricity are largely too expensive and insufficient. Wind turbines kill 1000 birds a year. Is this causing just as much damage to wildlife as climate change? A lot of money is being pumped into the research of renewable energy but is it really worth it? Technologies are advancing rapidly and there are plans to build numerous renewable energy sites all over the world.

• Word count: 582
18. ## Global Warming on Earth Physics Project

The Government has warned about this, and unless very strict actions are put straight into action, the Earth will continue to heat up until there will be no future for mankind. If global warming continues as it has been so far, the average global temperature is estimated to increase by 0.5�C a decade. So by the end of the millennium, the average temperature will be too much for the human body to cope with. The result: mankind will die out.

• Word count: 895
19. ## How to measure density of irregular solids

and record it 3. Place the beaker underneath of the spout of the Eureka can 4. Fill the Eureka can with distilled water until it has reached the top of the spout level and any excess water has gone into the beaker 5. Clean the beaker dry after spilling the excess water 6. Slowly dip the object into the water until it has fully immersed (avoid any movement of the object as it will cause fluctuation of the water). Do not dip excess string in the water 7. Collect the displaced water in the beaker until the last drop has come out 8.

• Word count: 631
20. ## Should We Persue Manned Space Flights?

Page 5-6 Are there any advantages? Page 6 Should we pursue manned space exploration? Page 6-7 Conclusion Page 7 Bibliography Page 8 A brief history about manned space exploration The earliest practical work on rocket engines designed for spaceflight occurred simultaneously during the early 20th century in three countries by three key scientists: in Russia, by Konstantin Tsiolkovski; in the United States, by Robert Goddard; and in Germany, by Hermann Oberth. On October 4, 1957, the Soviets launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, into space. Four years later on April 12, 1961, Russian Lt.

• Word count: 4693
21. ## Does the Uk need new nuclear power stations

He also claims that it is "waste of taxpayer's money", since the cost of building a nuclear power station is very high as is the cost of decommissioning one, when it is no longer needed. What is more a nuclear power station must be kept running all the time and is only 30% efficient, although in favor of nuclear power, the long term benefit is that nuclear fuel is relatively cheap. Kate Hudson, the chairman of CND, also claims that nuclear power is neither economically nor environmentally feasible, and argues that money would be better spent on sustainable energy sources, such as wind power, HEP and solar power, all of which are renewable and environmentally friendly.

• Word count: 1333
22. ## Environmental land based science

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23. ## Thickness of a wire preliminary investigation

Apparatus Power Pack Ceramic Resistor Voltmeter Crocodile Clips Ammeter Wires, on a ruler of different thicknesses Variable Resistor Circuit Diagram Method * Collect all the equipment needed to conduct the experiment * Connect the components correctly, as shown in the circuit diagram * Test that all the apparatus works, and make sure the voltmeter is connected in parallel and that the ammeter is connected in series anywhere in the circuit. * Make sure the ammeter is connected in 1, 0, whereas the voltmeter will be connected in 1, 5.

• Word count: 891
24. ## Do all of the rules and laws governing the world really only exist in our minds? Did we really create the world through our imagination?

Facts such as something will fall to the ground after holding it up in the air and letting go of it are what proves that these laws do not exist only in our minds but in reality, and they are what make up science. That fact causes the scientific community to ask questions and in the attempt of answering these questions the laws are born.

• Word count: 502
25. ## Creative Writing

Their, flower scents would trail throughout the air like some kind of fragrant ghost. It was very deserted and was quite a secluded area. It was good to come here and think from time to time, to clear my head. When trudging through this emerald wasteland you could occasionally see the scurrying of a hare, darting around fidgeting in it's burrow, or just simply running around freely. You could see the adrenaline in its mysterious amber eyes. That shimmered and gleamed in the light, similarly to mine when I used to gaze deeply into a blazing fireplace.

• Word count: 1144