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PLAN for the investigation into the affect of the concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate on its rate of reaction with hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Chemistry- PLAN for the investigation into the affect of the concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate on it's rate of reaction with hydrochloric acid. Rates of reactions are affected by four main factors of reactants which are the size of the particles of the reactant, the temperature of the reactant, the concentration of the reactant and adding a catalyst into the solution. As shown by the title the main one which will be focused on in this planning and experiment is the concentration of the solution of sodium thiosulphate. This affects the rate of reaction as the more concentrated reactant 1 is the more particles of the acid there are which come into contact with reactant 2, and then this means more particles from reactant 1 are reacting with reactant 2 and so this means the rate of the reaction is faster. APPARATUS: DIAGRAM: 160cm3 of sodium thiosulphate 110cm3 of water 5cm3 of hydrochloric acid at 1M Measuring Cylinder Beakers Conical Flask Paper with X PREDICTION: So my above information on the rate of reactions to do with concentration concludes my prediction, as, my prediction is the more concentrated the sodium thiosulphate the more faster the reaction between the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid will be. I think this will be the case because as shown above the more concentrated the thiosulphate is the more particles of it there will be that react with the hydrochloric acid, so this will make a faster reaction and make the cross disappear faster aswell. ...read more.

Middle

The hydrochloric acid in this experiment is a controlled variable as it's being controlled and not going to change, so it will stay at 5cm3 at 1M, and the time/rate of the reaction that makes the X disappear is a dependent variable as this variable's outcome depends on the independent variable and it's going to be measured by me. Additionally the environmental temperature is a controlled variable as the temperature at which the experiment will be done is at room temperature and that will be kept constant. Also this experiment was repeated by using the other sodium thiosulphate from the beaker but firstly the beaker was rinsed out to get rid of cross contamination. Then sodium thiosulphate was poured into the beaker but 10cm3 less from the previous experiments were poured into each experiment followed by another. But before it's poured into the conical flask the water is poured into it to lower the concentration. And the amount of the water in each experiment was the amount which when added to the amount of sodium thiosulphate equals 50cm3, and this again was measured using the measuring cylinder. Then the rate of the reaction was noted as well by doing 1/TIME taken for the cross to disappear. This investigation was repeated one or two more times to get better results and check to make sure no result was way out, it also gets an average. ...read more.

Conclusion

The improvements which would improve the end results and make them similar to the preliminary results are doing the whole experiment under the same conditions of temperature, so do it in a room where the temperature is always constant so this won't affect the rate of reaction and so the results. Also making sure eyesight is good so make sure the goggles worn aren't affecting whether the cross can be seen or not, make sure glasses which are worn are glasses which make the eyesight see fully and make sure glasses are worn if need be to improve the eyesight, and this makes the results more accurate. Lastly making sure the equipment is washed and the contents of it is emptied only when different solutions are needed to be put into the equipment, so this gets rid of cross contamination so it won't affect the results. Or having different equipment, where there is equipment for each solution, so the measuring cylinder and beaker for each. This can differentiate between which solutions are to which equipment and not getting confused between thinking was this solution in here or this one, which is done by having the contents of the solution in a beaker with a label of its solution. This gets rid of any cross contamination coming in and there is no need for washing except washing the conical flask, and also pouring the solution out of the measuring cylinder is needed to be done so other volumes of the solution can be measured. ...read more.

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