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Plan to investigate the hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes

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Introduction

Plan to investigate the hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes Aim I aim to make a plan to an experiment to investigate the rate of reaction of 3 halogenoalkanes. My plan will be relevant for any one who would like to see the rate f reaction for halogenoalkanes when hydrolysed. What happens when a halogenoalkane is hydrolysed? Some people that may study science may wonder what happens when a halogenoalkane is hydrolysed, in my plan I will write down exactly how to find out what happens. I will not actually carry out the experiment but I tend to make my plan so detailed that anyone who follows it should be able to carry out the test successfully. Some people may also wonder how does a halogen affect the rate if reaction? I also intend to make my plan son clear that this question will be answered if the plan is carried out. In this plan it will be a step-by-step guide as to how to investigate the rate of reaction of a halogenoalkane. This test will be fair; this means everything must be kept constant what ever is in my control will be kept constant. ...read more.

Middle

Different chemical reactions go at different rates. Some reactions, such as burning fuel in a cylinder or precipitating silver chloride from solution go very fast. On the other hand, others such as the souring of milk or the rusting of iron are much slower reactions. Some other things that affect rate of reaction: The concentration of the reactants, the temperature, the particle size of a solid and the presence of a catalyst. Nucleophilic substitution is when the halogen is substituted by a variety of other groups. When the halogen is substituted it will become a halide ion. This means that the atom that is replacing it must possess a lone-pair of electrons. This lone pair is donated to the positive carbon atom, and a new covalent bond is formed. The chemical that donates the lone-pair that causes the formation of a covalent bond is called a nucleophile. (Where x represents a halogen) Method: The volume must be worked out in order for the person carrying out the test to know how much of each solution to use. Volume = Mass Volume of 0.025moles = 2.3125 Density 0.890 = 2.6cm3 Use 0.025moles of each halogenoalkane 1. ...read more.

Conclusion

In order for the results to be reliable it is essential to carry out a fair test. � You must accurately measure the amount of haloalkanes, silver nitrate and ethanol making sure they are all the same quantity in each test tube. � You must start the timing as soon as you place the halogenoalkane in and stop as soon as a clear precipitate shows without shaking. � You have to keep temperature, pressure and as mentioned before concentration. RESULTS HX Time started (min) Time finished (min) Rate of reaction (min) 1-chlorobutane 1-bromobutane 1-iodobutane The conclusion should begin with a brief evaluation. For example As can be seen 1-chlorobutane is the least reactive as it took the longest time however the rate of reaction increases as you go down decreases to 1-iodobutane. This is how the results table should be set up. The results may not be similar, however they should still correspond to the hypothesis. From these results I can see that 1-chlorobutane slowly produced a white precipitate of silver chloride. 1-bromobutane produced a white precipitate of silver bromide faster than the 1-chlorobutane, however the fastest was the 1-iodobutane, which produced a yellow precipitate of silver iodide the fast. Sources of information: http://www.wpbschoolhouse.btinternet.co.uk http://www.rjclarkson.demon.co.uk/organi/organic3.htm NAS Organic Chemistry, Energetics, Kinetics and Equilibrium Cambridge Advanced Science Chemistry 1 ...read more.

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