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Planning of Titration

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Introduction

Planning of Titration Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find the concentration of a sample of sulphuric acid using methyl orange as an indicator and a sodium carbonate solution as the base with known concentration. In order to find the concentration of Sulphuric acid, I will have to perform a Titration and this will allow me to find out the concentration of Sulphuric acid. I will use the alkaline base which is Sodium Carbonate Solution to neutralise acid solution which is Sulphuric acid. An indicator present in the sulphuric acid solution will change colour after some time when the acid has been neutralised and that will be the end point. For this experiment I will be given anhydrous Sodium Carbonate of which I will make a solution of a concentration in the range between 0.05 and 0.15 mol dm-3. This is the only range of concentration of Na2CO3 I can make because the concentration of base lies between these two values. Another reason for this is that this is a one to one reaction. I will also be given Sulphuric acid and access to equipment for Titration in Laboratory. Introduction to Titration: Titration is a laboratory technique by which we can determine the concentration of an unknown reagent using a standard concentration of another reagent that chemically reacts with the unknown. This standard solution is referred to as the "titrant". We have to have some way to determine when the reaction is complete that we are using. This is referred to as the "end point" or more technically the equivalence point. At that point all the unknown has been reacted with the standard titrant and some kind of chemical indicator must let us know when that point has been arrived at. Introduction to Indicators: A chemical indicator is any substance used to assist in the classification of another substance. Indicators or are weak acids or bases that undergo dissociation in a known pH range. ...read more.

Middle

Use a wash bottle to rinse the sides of the flask and the tip of the burette; to be sure all titrant is mixed in the flask. * As you approach the endpoint, you may need to add a partial drop of titrant. You can do this with a rapid spin of a Teflon stopcock or by partially opening the stopcock and rinsing the partial drop into the flask with a wash bottle. * Make sure you know what the endpoint should look like. For methyl orange, the endpoint is the first orangey yellow. If you think you might have reached the endpoint, you can record the volume reading and add another partial drop. Sometimes it is easier to tell when you have gone past the endpoint. * If the flask looks dark yellow (with methyl orange), you have gone too far! * When you have reached the endpoint which is when the colour of solution has changed from pinkie red to orangey yellow, read the final volume in the burette and record it in your notebook. * Do the whole procedure 4 or 5 more times to get accurate results. * Subtract the initial volume to determine the amount of titrant delivered. Use this, the concentration of the titrant, and the stoichiometry of the titration reaction to calculate the number of moles of reactant in your analyte solution. At the equivalence point (end point): Number of equivalent weights of titrant = Number of equivalent weights of unknown The apparatus to be used for Titration > Burette 50 cm3 > Clamp Stand > Conical Flask 250 ml > Stirrer > Funnel > White Tile Risk Assessment and Precautions Always wear approved laboratory eye protection and coats for self protection. A burette is necessary since the volume of the solution being run into the alkali must be measured. Other precautions are to have the burette vertical, to read the bottom of the meniscus, and to constantly swirl the conical flask during the titration. ...read more.

Conclusion

Also I will compare the colour of the rough with the real experiment if it is correct. * I will use a white Tile which will make easy to see the colour change in solution. * I will use a Funnel to deliver the sodium carbonate solution into the burette so that no solution is wasted. * I will use a pipette pump to suck in the Sulphuric acid into the bulb pipette. * The Clamp Stand will hold the Burette * The stirrer will be used to mix and crush the solid in distilled water when making standard solution. * The teat pipette is only used in the case when bulb pipette is not available or you can't be bothered to use the bulb pipette. * The weighing bottle is specifically made for weighing compounds and I will be weighing anhydrous Sodium carbonate in it. * The Spatula is used to take small amount of Na2CO3 and weigh it. * Finally the 100 cm3 beaker is used to dissolve the Sodium Carbonate into distilled water. It is small so it is easy to mix the solid in water with this beaker. * I will make a suitable concentration of the alkali which is within the range of 0.05-0.15 mol dm-3 because this is the range of concentration of the acid. I will use this concentration for both solution because if they differ too much it wont give accurate results as this is a one to one reaction. Source of information * I used the activity sheet M 2.4. I used this especially for the method. (How to do follow everything step by step) * I used the Book 'Advanced Chemistry 2000' (second edition. I used it especially for the formulas of finding concentrations etc. * I also used the website 'www.creative-chemistry.org.uk'. This was especially useful for understanding how to make a standard solution. * I used the Salter activity sheet El 2.1. I used this for the table of results and for the procedure. ?? ?? ?? ?? Planning of Titration Sadiq Ahmed Chemistry ...read more.

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