• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Plant hormones and their commercial uses

Extracts from this document...


Plant hormones and their commercial uses Plant hormones, and their derivatives are extremely widely used in agriculture, biology and a number of related fields, this essay is a discussion of most common uses of these hormones and their synthetic analogues in a commercial environment. Perhaps the most widely used group of plant hormones are the auxins. Auxins are plant hormones; the most important of which is known as indole-3-acetic acid or (IAA). It plays important roles in a whole range of plant processes including, root development, fruit development, and plant trophism (plant growth responses to external stimulus). Because of the very wide range of effects that it can initiate, auxins are probably used commercially more than any other plant hormone. Their most common use is in the creation of seedless varieties of fruit. Normally, pollination of the flowers of angiosperms begins the formation of seeds. As the seeds mature, they release auxin to the surrounding flower parts, which develop into the fruit. There are now many varieties seedless fruit available to the consumer. ...read more.


and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4,5-T). A mixture of these was the "Agent Orange" used by the U.S. military to defoliate the forest in parts of Vietnam during the conflict. These hormone based weed killers are very popular due to the fact that they are very selective; killing broad-leaved plants but not grasses (scientists are still not completely certain as to the reasons for this selectivity). The synthetic auxin acts by being taken into the cell by the same active transport mechanism as normal auxins, but unlike the normal auxins it cannot leave the cell, and it is believed that the resulting accumulation of 2,4-D within the cell kills it. Perhaps the most unusual of the plant hormones used commercially is Ethylene Ethylene differs from other plant hormones in being a gas formula (H2C=CH2). Most fruits release ethylene as they begin to mature, however proximity to the gas will cause other fruit to mature as well the presence of ethylene is detected by transmembrane receptors in the surface of the plasma membrane of the cells. ...read more.


However these dwarf plants tend to be much tougher and resistant to bad weather and plant parasites. The final major commercially used plant hormone is Abscisic acid; this compound and its analogues (structurally similar compounds to the natural ABA plant hormone) interact in various physiological plant processes including stress avoidance mechanisms that reduce transpirational water loss under drought conditions. Drought shock and cold stress are common causes of loss during establishment of horticultural crops such as vegetables, ornamentals and flowering annuals. Application of synthetic analogues of Abscisic acid to young seedlings or transplants can increase their tolerance to drought stress and cold. Unfortunately, the beneficial effects of ABA applied in this way are short lived as the chemical is rapidly metabolised. However, the synthetic analogues are more physiologically active and longer-lasting compounds than naturally occurring hormone. These compounds have extensive uses in horticulture, agriculture and forestry and there is many commercial applications for this product that include, Reduction of seedling transplantation shock in fruit trees, vegetables, ornamentals and flowering annuals (it is often applied to cuttings along with an auxin derivative to reduce plant stress). Perhaps the most common use is to treat 'seed' potatoes and malt barley to delay sprouting during storage. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Green Plants as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Green Plants as Organisms essays

  1. Free essay

    Solar Desalination Plant

    water = 93% � 95% � 86.394 � 18 MJ = 1.3739x109 J Amount of energy required to desalinate 1kg of water = 71570 J Amount of water evaporated = 1.3739x109 J 71570 J/kg = 19196.92 Litre Total tanks required to meet targeted amount of water production = 2605 Average

  2. Mangrove Soil Analysis

    two zones would have absorbed close to the highest amounts absorbed over 3 days. Mangroves thrive in these muddy environments and have learnt to avoid the drowning affect that extensive amounts of water often have on plants. Some species of mangrove have evolved to have above ground roots such as stilt roots and aerial roots.

  1. What is Drought?

    * Seasonal drought is a feature of places which are very dry for most of the year, with a short rainy season. Droughts here are predictable. For example, the countries around the Mediterranean Sea have rains in winter and drought in summer.

  2. Auxins: Plant growth Hormones.

    Wilt = more water lost than taken in which means loss of turgidity which means the loss of support which means the collapse of the plant. Growth movements by plants Plant shoots respond to gravity and Light A plant growth response is called tropism When shoots grow towards light it

  1. How did Leamington develop into a typical spa town of the mid nineteenth century?

    Jephson Gardens in Royal Leamington Spa There are the Pump Room Gardens, which were created in 1810, Victoria Park, the Monkey Run and Holly Walk and Ranelegh Gardens. The Monkey Run consisted of a walkway of trees on Lindon Avenue with Iron archways, which symbolised the monkey run.

  2. Investigating the growth of Lemna (Duckweed)

    Yes Yes Yes Yes Nitrogen Deficient Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Magnesium Deficient Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Sulphur Deficient Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Iron Deficient Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Potassium Deficient Yes Yes Yes Yes

  1. Is photorespiration an effective mechanism for protecting against photoinhibition?

    The high-energy electrons soon find another oxidising agent to reduce and it is these species which can cause the damage. The two most common outcomes are: (I am not sure how singlet oxygen fits into the grand scheme oft things as I have only seen references to damage cause by superoxide radicals)

  2. The effects of organic effluent from the seweage on the biodiversty in a freshwater ...

    Competition for light may lead to death of many algae, which are decayed, by aerobic bacteria. Bacteria reproduce due to high concentration of organic material. BOD increases and the species within stream decreases. The particles in raw sewage make the stream cloudy and block light reducing photosynthesis leading to lowers amount of oxygen and hence cause anaerobic conditions.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work