• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Plant hormones and their commercial uses

Extracts from this document...


Plant hormones and their commercial uses Plant hormones, and their derivatives are extremely widely used in agriculture, biology and a number of related fields, this essay is a discussion of most common uses of these hormones and their synthetic analogues in a commercial environment. Perhaps the most widely used group of plant hormones are the auxins. Auxins are plant hormones; the most important of which is known as indole-3-acetic acid or (IAA). It plays important roles in a whole range of plant processes including, root development, fruit development, and plant trophism (plant growth responses to external stimulus). Because of the very wide range of effects that it can initiate, auxins are probably used commercially more than any other plant hormone. Their most common use is in the creation of seedless varieties of fruit. Normally, pollination of the flowers of angiosperms begins the formation of seeds. As the seeds mature, they release auxin to the surrounding flower parts, which develop into the fruit. There are now many varieties seedless fruit available to the consumer. ...read more.


and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4,5-T). A mixture of these was the "Agent Orange" used by the U.S. military to defoliate the forest in parts of Vietnam during the conflict. These hormone based weed killers are very popular due to the fact that they are very selective; killing broad-leaved plants but not grasses (scientists are still not completely certain as to the reasons for this selectivity). The synthetic auxin acts by being taken into the cell by the same active transport mechanism as normal auxins, but unlike the normal auxins it cannot leave the cell, and it is believed that the resulting accumulation of 2,4-D within the cell kills it. Perhaps the most unusual of the plant hormones used commercially is Ethylene Ethylene differs from other plant hormones in being a gas formula (H2C=CH2). Most fruits release ethylene as they begin to mature, however proximity to the gas will cause other fruit to mature as well the presence of ethylene is detected by transmembrane receptors in the surface of the plasma membrane of the cells. ...read more.


However these dwarf plants tend to be much tougher and resistant to bad weather and plant parasites. The final major commercially used plant hormone is Abscisic acid; this compound and its analogues (structurally similar compounds to the natural ABA plant hormone) interact in various physiological plant processes including stress avoidance mechanisms that reduce transpirational water loss under drought conditions. Drought shock and cold stress are common causes of loss during establishment of horticultural crops such as vegetables, ornamentals and flowering annuals. Application of synthetic analogues of Abscisic acid to young seedlings or transplants can increase their tolerance to drought stress and cold. Unfortunately, the beneficial effects of ABA applied in this way are short lived as the chemical is rapidly metabolised. However, the synthetic analogues are more physiologically active and longer-lasting compounds than naturally occurring hormone. These compounds have extensive uses in horticulture, agriculture and forestry and there is many commercial applications for this product that include, Reduction of seedling transplantation shock in fruit trees, vegetables, ornamentals and flowering annuals (it is often applied to cuttings along with an auxin derivative to reduce plant stress). Perhaps the most common use is to treat 'seed' potatoes and malt barley to delay sprouting during storage. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Green Plants as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Green Plants as Organisms essays

  1. Mangrove Soil Analysis

    Label each evaporating dish and weigh it. Record each weight at its appropriate name on the results table. 2. Add the dry soil samples from experiment 3 to their appropriately labeled dish. 3. Find the Mass of the dry soil present (No 3 on the results table)

  2. Free essay

    Solar Desalination Plant

    having the following points: * Relatively low salinity sea water readily available * In close proximity to a water treatment plant at Westernport * Government proposed area Figure 4: GPS photographic view of Hastings 3. CALCULATIONS 3.1 Water Calculations Total solar exposure based on the annual daily solar exposure taken

  1. Auxins: Plant growth Hormones.

    Wilt = more water lost than taken in which means loss of turgidity which means the loss of support which means the collapse of the plant. Growth movements by plants Plant shoots respond to gravity and Light A plant growth response is called tropism When shoots grow towards light it

  2. Is photorespiration an effective mechanism for protecting against photoinhibition?

    Cytochrome b/f complex reduction. This occurs when photosystem II ( PSII) is working harder than photosystem I (PSI), resulting in a backlog of electrons and a reduction of the cytochrome b/f complex. Because the complex is highly reduced it can no longer accept electrons and so free O2, acts as the oxidant creating singlet oxygen.

  1. What is Drought?

    Types of drought There are many types of drought. * Permanent drought occurs in dry desert regions. There is hardly any rainfall, therefore deserts have drought all the time. However, desert people are good are surviving in these areas because they are used to the dry conditions and harsh environment.

  2. How did Leamington develop into a typical spa town of the mid nineteenth century?

    Gardens & Walks: There are numerous walkways and public gardens in Leamington including; Newbold Gardens later to be known as Jephson Gardens in aid of Dr Jephson who came to Leamington Spa in 1819 and helped the town to become more famous and fashionable.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work