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Pollination. - experiment to study seed dispersal

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PAPPUS BIOLOGY COURSEWORK YEAR 11 BY SHERYAR MAJID Introduction and Planning Pollination is the process of moving the pollen grain from the anther of a stamen to the stigma of a carpel. There are a few flowers that can self-pollinate all on their own, but this limits them to inbreeding. Most species rely upon some kind of pollination vector (as in wind and water) to accomplish pollination. Animals: Also known as the "smart bomb" or "magic bullet" vector, animals are probably the best and most commonly used means of pollination. The animal can do a number of things to accomplish pollination. It can: Eat it, and then drop it Eat it and then excrete it Give it to their young, or another animal who will drop it or excrete it Pick it up unknowingly and then drop it somewhere Pick it up unknowingly and then drop it in the stigma Animals are very effective because they can: Remember where the flower is Get to the flower without depending on others Locate and sense the flowers easily through touch, sight, and smell These are the three main reasons as to why animals are called the "magic bullet", and "smart bomb." Apparatus: For the practical: - 1 retort stand 2 clamps 1-meter stick 1 seed (if you are confident that you will not break any) ...read more.


My readings were very difficult to take, as this experiment was a lot to do with my judgement, reflexes and accuracy. So if there is any inconsistency with the data then it is mainly due to human error. I took my reading from the second the tragaponam pratensis left my hand at the top of the one metre stick (when I start the stop clock with my other hand) to when the pappus hits the table one metre later. The way I measured the size of the pappus was by drawing a rough trace of it on graph paper. Then I roughly worked how much half was, a quarter was etc. then I cut the pappus to size by use of scissors. So actually the diameter of the pappus was the size. As the area wasn't exactly being reduce proportional. Analysis For my analysis I will try to represent the data in a more understandable form, so that I can analyse it. Also I will see what else I can find out with this data apart time taken for a pappus to fall a certain distance. Some of the other things that I can work include speed, acceleration, average of all three times for each pappus etc. first of all I will find the average so I can use the average time to base my other calculations on. ...read more.


The graph showed an almost straight line going down in the direction. This is because the surface area of the pappus decreased throughout the experiment thus giving little area for the air to hit the pappus and cause friction. Evaluation My evaluation of the experiment was there were many in accuracy with it. The majority of the experiment was to due human reflexes. There were problems such as: 1. You had to be very careful with the pappus otherwise it would break and you would have to start again. 2. You couldn't get the timing for when the pappus left the hand exactly, to when it exactly hit the table. 3. The experiment needs to be performed more time for more accurate result. There were also good points about this procedure such as: 1. It was a fair test. 2. There were no out side variables affecting it such as wind. 3. It was done to the best of my ability. 4. Their result seemed to be fairly accurate. There was much room for improvement in the experiment as I have just mentioned. There can also be some further investigation into such as larger distances to fall; different species of pappus, different conditions such more wind etc. Criticisms and Improvements The readings were not so accurate due to the fact that I used seven different seeds during the experiment. This made the experiment an unfair test. Pappus Biology Coursework Sheryar Majid 10Q September 2000 Mrs Tyler 1 Page ...read more.

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