• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Precipitation. The purpose of this experiment is to become familiar with precipitation reactions. According to the textbook, precipitation is the process where a chemical reaction leads to the formation of a solid, which is called a precipitate.

Extracts from this document...


27 February 2009 Precipitation Reactions Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to become familiar with precipitation reactions. According to the textbook, precipitation is the process where a chemical reaction leads to the formation of a solid, which is called a "precipitate." These types of chemical reactions are called precipitation reactions. To understand the formation of a solid in a chemical reaction, it is important to understand the key components that yield the precipitate. Precipitation reactions specifically occur when aqueous solutions of ionic solutes are mixed to produce a solid. The term "aqueous" refers to the state of the substance, showing that it dissolves in water. When a solid containing ions dissolves in water, the ions separate and move around independently. When two aqueous solutions are mixed, the solution becomes a mixed solution -one that contains independent ions. To determine what solid, if any, is formed, it is necessary to predict the result using the rules of solubility. Solubility is a solid's ability to dissolve in water. A soluble solid will readily dissolve in water, whereas an insoluble solid will not dissolve, or change in ways so small that they are not visible to the naked eye. By knowing the solubility rules of ionic compounds, it is possible to know whether a precipitate will form in a reaction, and what the precipitate is. Methods and Materials This experiment required the mixture of several different substances, followed by observation of the results. ...read more.


+ BaCl2(aq) --> PbCl2(aq) + Ba(C2H3O2)2(aq) No Precipitate Lead(II)Acetate - Pb(C2H3O2)2 Hydrochloric Acid - HCl Pb(C2H3O2)2(aq) + HCl(aq) --> PbCl2(aq) + H2(C2H3O2)2(aq) No Precipitate Lead(II)Acetate - Pb(C2H3O2)2 Copper(II)Sulfate - CuSO4 Pb(C2H3O2)2(aq) + CuSO4(aq) --> PbSO4(s) + Cu(C2H3O2)2(aq) PbSO4 Barium Chloride - BaCl2 Sodium Carbonate - Na2CO3 BaCl2(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) --> BaCO3(s) + NaCl(aq) BaCO3 Barium Chloride - BaCl2 Sodium Sulfate - Na2SO4 BaCl2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) --> BaSO4(s) + NaCl(aq) BaSO4 Barium Chloride - BaCl2 Sulfuric Acid - H2SO4 BaCl2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) --> BaSO4(s) + HCl(aq) BaSO4 Barium Chloride - BaCl2 Copper(II)Sulfate - CuSO4 BaCl2(aq) + CuSO4(aq) --> BaSO4(s) + CuCl(aq) BaSO4 Sodium Chloride - NaCl Sodium Carbonate - Na2CO3 NaCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) --> Na2CO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) No Precipitate Ammonium Chloride - NH4Cl Lead(II)Acetate - Pb(C2H3O2)2 NH4Cl(aq) + Pb(C2H3O2)2(aq) --> NH4(C2H3O2)2(aq) + PbCl2(aq) No Precipitate Ammonium Chloride - NH4Cl Silver Nitrate - AgNO3 NH4Cl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) --> NH4NO3(aq) + AgCl(s) AgCl Ammonium Chloride - NH4Cl Copper(II)Sulfate - CuSO4 NH4Cl(aq) + CuSO4(aq) --> NH4SO4(aq) + CuCl(aq) No Precipitate Table 2. Net Ionic Equations and Observations Reactants Net Ionic Equation Observations AgNO3, NaCl Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) --> AgCl(s) drops turned cloudy-white AgNO3, HCl Cl-(aq) + Ag-(aq) --> AgCl(s) drops turned cloudy-white AgNO3, H2SO4 Ag+(aq) + Ag+(aq) + SO4-(aq) -->Ag2SO4(s) developed soft-white particles AgNO3, Na2SO4 Ag+(aq) + Ag+(aq) + SO4-(aq) --> Ag2SO4(s) developed yellow tint AgNO3, Na2CO3 Ag+(aq) + Ag+(aq) ...read more.


Questions The solubility rules used to predict the identity of the precipitates formed in the reactions of this experiment are general "rules of thumb" that hold true in most instances. However, the specific quantity of an ionic solid that will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent is governed by the solubility or the solubility product of the ionic substance. Use your textbook or encyclopedia for each of these terms. Solubility - solubility is physical property of a substance having the ability to dissolve in water. Solubility product - solubility product constants are used to describe saturated solutions of ionic compounds of relatively low solubility. A saturated solution is in a state of dynamic equilibrium between the dissolved, dissociated, ionic compound and the undissolved solid. Source: www.chem.purdue.edu/ Conclusion Though chemistry is a very complex science, experimenting with chemical reactions offers a chance to experience and understand the consistent workings of the study. On paper, it seems as though the hundreds of elements and thousands of compound combinations are an endless wall of difficult formulas. Through experiences like these experiments, however, I can firsthand witness the consistency in chemical change, and see exactly how the world functions. Precipitation opened up a new aspect of chemistry -the ability to see and know how ions react in water, and how they react with each other to form new solids. Seeing and understanding why chemical changes happen transforms an endless wall of "dry" formulas into a fascinating world of actual substances found in reality. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Haber Process

    3 star(s)

    Whereas for 550�c, the percentage yield for the 100 atmosphere is 6% and the yield for the 400 atmosphere is 18%. Therefore, from looking at my results, I can tell the 350�c at 400 atmosphere would be best for optimum Ammonium production as the results of percentage yield are higher than the percentage yields for 550�c.

  2. Endothermic Reactions - I am going to investigate the temperature drop induced by the ...

    Fair Test In order to keep my test fair, I will attempt to remove any alterations in conditions that may affect my experiment. The main problem with doing a temperature change experiment is losing heat to the surrounding atmosphere, I will therefore attempt to reduce heat loss to an absolute minimum.

  1. Precipitation, silver chloride, silver nitrate and sodium chloride.

    = 0.1435g 170 Actual yield = 0.95g Percentage yield = 0.95g * 100 0.1435g = 664% Results Mass of silver chloride + filter paper = 0.95g Mass of filter paper = 0.85g Mass of silver chloride produced I.e. actual yield of silver chloride = 0.15g Evaluation The only problem I

  2. Free essay

    Investigation of aqueous electrolytic cells.For this experiment, we are to test an aqueous solution, ...

    Dependent variable: mass of electrode For the dependent variable, it is the mass of electrode, because this is what I will be measuring, meaning the output of this experiment. It is also the responding variable; the variable that may change result of the independent variable.

  1. Analysing Soft Drink

    Colorimetry: Colorimetry involves using light to work out the concentration of an unknown coloured solution. Colourimetry uses a device called the colourimeter. It is more accurate than Colorimetry as it is measured by machinery. The colour is measured using a spectrophotometer in the machine.

  2. construction science and materials

    This solution reacts with the tri-calcium aluminate in the cement mortar joints. This causes the mortar to expand, crack and crumble leading to bowling of the walls. This chemical reaction is known as sulphate attack. Example of sulphate attack. Sulphate attack in mortar is recognised typically by one or a

  1. Softening hard water with sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)

    I had hoped for a clearer demonstration of this effect however my results were reasonable within the margin of experimental error. Water is made hard by dissolved calcium ions, Ca2+, when placed into a solution Na2CO3 splits up into Na+ ions and CO32- ions, the CO32- ions combine with the

  2. Produce two different metal salts (NaHSO4 and Na2SO4) through an application of specific stoichiometric ...

    V = 0.009349 dm3 ? 0.05 % V2(H2SO4) = 9.349 cm3 ? 0.05 % This is the volume of sulfuric acid required to induce the reaction in (II), producing Na2SO4, it will result in the presence of half the number of mole NaOH in H2SO4.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work