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Preparation and analysis of inorganic and organic compounds

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Preparation and analysis of inorganic and organic compounds

Task 1 titration of sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid

In this experiment the sodium hydroxide is neutralized with Hydrochloric acid to produce sodium chloride (the soluble salt) it is then crystallized in a dish.

The equation for the above reaction is NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq)  NaCl(aq) + H20(l)

Method

  1. Add 25cm3 of sodium hydroxide into a conical flask then add couple of drops of methyl orange indicator
  2. Next fill the burette with HCL using a funnel to the 0 mark
  3. Add HCL to sodium hydroxide in small amounts swirling constantly keep adding until the solution changes to a red colour record your result
  4. Using the same volume of HCL now add it to another 25 cm3 of sodium hydroxide to produce a neutral solution
  5. Use a Bunsen burner and an evaporating dish to reduce the volume to half
  6. Finally leave to evaporate in a crystallizing dish to produce a white crystalline solid

RESULTS

My results for the experiment:

Rough

1

2

Final burette reading

26.4

26.3

26.4

Initial Burette Reading

0.00

0.00

0.00

Titre

26.4

26.3

26.4

Average Volume = 26.35

Mass of Evaporating dish = 53.86 (Mass = 55.04 – 53.86 = 1.18g)

Mass = n x Mr = 0.025 x 58.5 = 1.4625

Calculating Percentage Yield   1.18   x 100 = 80.7 %

                                1.4625

Test for ions present

Sodium Na+ -- test carried out = flame test – result golden yellow

This happens as the electrons move to higher energy level and then fall back down when heated which gives out yellow light.

Chloride test  test carried out = add silver nitrate – result white precipitate of silver chloride was formed

Task (e)

Purity analysis of NaCl

In this task I will be showing the purity analysis of NaCl the same procedure will be carried out as before but this time 0.1 moldm-3 of sodium chloride is titrated with 0.05 moldm-3  silver nitrate the indicator will be the chromate indicator

The chemical formula for the following reaction is:NaCl(aq)  + AgNO3(aq)      AgCl(s)  +   NaNo3(aq)

RESULTS

These are the results obtained for the following experiment:

Rough

1

2

Final burette reading

19.9

20.5

20.6

Initial Burette Reading

0.00

0.00

0.00

Titre

19.9

20.5

20.6

Average Volume = 20.55

Converted to dm3 /1000

1)calculate no of moles of silver nitrate

N= C x V =0.05 x 0.02055 = 0.010275 moles

2)answer = no of mole of NaCl (1 : 1 ratio)

3) Calculate the actual concentration of NaCl

C= n/V = 0.010275     = 0.10275moldm-3        

              0.01                

4)percentage purity

         ppurity = 0.1      x 100  = 97.3%)

            0.010275                                     

Task 2

Method:

1)shake 2g of 2- hydroxybenzoic acid with 4 cm3 of ethanoic anhydride in a 100cm3 conical flask

2) add five drops of concentrated sulphuric acid agitating the flask for about 10 mins the whole wil form a crystalline mush

3) Dilute by stirring it in 4cm3 of cold glacial ethanoic acid and cool by placing in a water bath containing crushed ice

4) filter off the crystals using a Hirsch funnel and wash once with ice cold water

5) place the crude aspirin in a 100cm3 beaker add hot water not boiling water till it dissolves

6)cool and filter of crystals this process is known as recrystallisation

7) Take 4 test tubes add 2cm3 of distilled water in each and in 1 tube add one crystal of the product before recrystallisation and shake

8) Second tube add one crystal of the recrystallised product and shake

9) Third tube add one crystal of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid and shake

10) In last tube add one crystal of known pure aspirin and shake

11)To each tube add 2 drops in turn of neutral iron (III) chloride and shake

Following this method I got the following results

Mass at start was 2.04

Finishing mass was 2.08

Amount of yield:

138  180

1 180/138

1 1.3

2.04  2.652

2.08      x 100     =    78.4%

 2.652

Organic testing

To test for a phenol group

Method:

Add neutral iron III chloride(if a phenol group is present it will change into purple complex and if theres no purple then the aspirin is pure)

Using the following method my result showed a purple complex showing that my aspirin was impure

Melting point analysis

2 – hydroxybenzoic acid                pure aspirin                my sample

        150                          130 – 140                 125

125/135 = 92.6%

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Organic Chemistry section.

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