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Preparing Salts

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Introduction

Chemistry Lab report Preparing salts Aim: To carry out a neutralization reaction involving a certain volume of a known concentration of acid (sulphuric acid) and an alkali (sodium hydroxide) to determine its concentration. The equation: H2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O Apparatus: ==> A burette (?0.05cm�) and its holder ==> 2 measuring cylinders (?0.5cm�) ==> Sodium hydroxide of unknown concentration ==> Sulphuric acid of conc. 0.1mol/dm� ==> Phenolphthalein and universal indicator ==> A beaker ==> A filter funnel ==> Digital balance (?0.005g) ==> A crucible or dish to allow evaporation ==> Tripod stand ==> Bunsen burner Procedure: 1. Measure out 10cm� of sulphuric acid of concentration 0.1mol/dm� and pour it into a beaker. 2. Setup a pipette above the beaker and pour 50cm� (till it reaches the zero mark) of sodium hydroxide of unknown concentration in it. You may use a filter funnel while pouring the alkali into the beaker. 3. Add few drops of phenolphthalein to the acid in the beaker. It will be colourless. 4. Now, start adding small drops of sodium hydroxide to the beaker with acid under the pipette. ...read more.

Middle

Modifications: * Using both indicators to ensure accuracy and diversity in experiment. * Doing the experiment thrice, with and without the indicator. Safety Procedure: ==> Handle the acid and alkali very carefully as these are corrosive. ==> Handle pipette with care as it is very breakable. ==> Do not leave the neutralized solution burning to obtain salt without supervision. Experimental Setup: Observation: Qualitative: When sodium hydroxide drops fell into the acid, brief change in colour from transparent to pink could be seen where it fell, but as the beaker was swirled it disappeared. The drop that signified neutralization did not cause this brief colour change and thus in my opinion the results were very close to accurate. However, in one of the experimental trials with phenolphthalein, the volume of sodium hydroxide used was measured when the solution turned pink (signifying alkalinity). This presents the possibility that the alkali volume was about a drop more than needed and thus the result of 21 cm� as compared to the other more accurate readings. Quantitative: Table 1: Table showing the amount of sodium hydroxide used to neutralize 10cm� of sulphuric acid completely for three different trials. ...read more.

Conclusion

1 0.06 = 0.422 0.142 42.2 2 0.04 = 0.282 0.142 28.2 3 0.07 = 0.493 0.142 49.3 Average % yield 39.9 Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that the concentration of the sodium hydroxide given to us was 0.1mol/dm� and the average percentage yield of salt from the trials proved to be quite low, 39.9%. Evaluation: Overall, the experiment was successful at helping the determination of the concentration of sodium hydroxide. However, the yield of salt was very low and there may have been many reasons for that. Why the yield was low: The yield may have been low because the acid and the alkali may not have reacted completely. There may have been impurities that did not react. How to improve: The reactants should have been swirled very thoroughly to allow complete reaction to take place. A stir could have been used too. Try to obtain purer samples of the acid and alkali. Otherwise, some things that could have been done to make the experiment to make it more accurate: ==> More trials should have been done to ensure accuracy. ==> The acid and the alkali should have been measured more accurately. ?? ?? ?? ?? Ira Gupta X - B ...read more.

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