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Production of Epsom salts

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Introduction

Production of Epsom salts Introduction In this coursework, I am going to be making Epsom salts, Magnesium sulphate crystals is another name for Epsom salts. It is commonly being called Epsom salts because the salt is found in spa water from Epsom. They can be used for different things including manufacture of mordants for the dyeing industry, in the tanning of leather and manufacture of some lawn treatments. Epsom salts can be made in the laboratory by adding magnesium ribbon to dilute sulphuric acid. The chemical formula for the crystals is MgS047H2O. It is called the water of crystallisation as it is part of the crystal structure and if it is removed the solid changes from crystals to powder. If an excess of magnesium ribbon is added to dilute sulphuric acid all of the acid will react and the hydrogen will be liberated leaving a solution of magnesium sulphate in water and if the water is evaporated off slowly crystals of MgS047H2O will form. There are a number of factors that can influence the rate of a chemical reaction. These include: * The temperature * The concentration of reactants in the solution * Catalysts * Surface area of a solid reactant * The pressure of gases The temperature: When two chemicals react, their molecules have to collide with each other with sufficient energy for the reaction to take place. ...read more.

Middle

In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately for 15 minutes with plenty of cold water and seek medical advice. Magnesium ribbon Flammable in air Spontaneously flammable in air if placed near a naked flame. Lower risk if not used near a Bunsen burner. Wear safety glasses at all times that the practical is going on. Wear a lab coat to protect you and your clothes. Stand up when doing practical work. Inform staff and seek medical attention. Exit the classroom or laboratory until it is safe to return. Complete Method This practical is in two parts: the first part I will look at what happens to the rate of reaction when the concentration of the acid is changed. The second part I will be making magnesium sulphate crystals (Epsom salts). Equipment I used for the practical: A measuring cylinder A small beaker A stop-watch Three pieces of magnesium ribbon which is of equal length Three sulphuric acid solutions of three concentrations 1.00 mol dm-3 ,0.50 mol dm-3 and 25.0cm3 First part: 1. I first cut three approximately 2cm in length sized pieces of magnesium ribbon 2. I used a measuring cylinder to measure out 25.0cm3 of 1.00 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid and then placed it in a clean beaker. ...read more.

Conclusion

It is a way of measuring how successful a reaction has been. I think the reaction was efficient since I made 75% of the maximum possible 100%. Thus, the practical was also successful since I obtained an efficient actual yield and I was able to get my actual yield properly and accurately. I would not recommend this procedure for large scale production since I obtained a 75% yield which means you will lose 25% in every production. Cost of Making Epsom salts I am going to calculate the cost of making Epsom salts. I used the following reagents: 1.00 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid �3.41 per litre I used 25 cm3 Magnesium ribbon �3.70 per 100 g I used 0.539g The mass of Epsom salts I produced was 0.9g 1.00 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid costs �3.41 per litre and I used 25 cm3 so the cost is: 3.41/1000 =0.00341 which is the same as 0.341p per cm3 so 25 cm3 costs 0.341 x 25 = 8.53p Magnesium ribbon costs �3.70 per 100g and I used 0.539g so the cost per gram is: 3.70/100 = �0.037 which is the same as 3.70p so 0.539g costs 3.70 x 0.539 = 1.9943p So the total cost of making 0.9g of Epsom salts is 8.53 + 1.9943 = 10.5243p The cost per gram is 10.5243/0.9 = 11.69p (rounded of to nearest penny) The cost per kilogram is 11.69 x 1000 = 11690p which is the same as �116.90 ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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