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# Prove that changing the surface area of calcium carbonate chips, either by increasing or decreasing, will affect the rate of reaction between the calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Harriet French Mr Heath, Science Coursework Rates of Reaction Aim The aim of my investigation is to prove that changing the surface area of calcium carbonate chips, either by increasing or decreasing, will affect the rate of reaction between the calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid, i.e. the rate of carbon dioxide being produced by the reaction will increase/decrease. Plan I will do this by conducting a simple experiment of calcium carbonate reacting with hydrochloric acid and recording how much carbon dioxide is being produced every one minute. I will do three sets of tests for each of the three different surface areas (large, medium, and powdered). Variables There are many variables that could affect the rate of reaction in this experiment. These are: � Surface area of calcium carbonate used � Concentration of acid � Amount of calcium carbonate � Amount of acid � Temperature of the acid � Use of a catalyst The things I could measure/observe are: � Temperature of the acid � Volume of acid � Catalyst � Concentration of acid � Surface area of calcium carbonate The variables that will stay the same during my series of tests are: � Temperature of the acid � Amount of acid � Concentration of acid � Amount of calcium carbonate The independent variable I have chosen to study is the surface area of the calcium carbonate. I will measure and observe the rate of production and the volume of carbon dioxide produced throughout my reaction as my dependant variable. Predictions The question I am going to investigate is: 'Does the surface area of calcium carbonate affect the rate of carbon dioxide being produced when reacting with acid?' ...read more.

Middle

If not, will directly affect results. If not filled completely will give a false reading as to how much Co2 has been produced, making results unreliable. Ensure all measurements are accurately measured out. If not, will be an unfair test and will directly affect the results. There are also some safety precautions that need to be enforced when doing my experiment for the safety of myself and others around me. I must wear goggles at all times when around harmful chemicals of any kind, such as hydrochloric acid and I must tuck my school tie into my shirt as it could dangle and get in the way of what I am doing, possibly knocking over dangerous chemicals/equipment. I must also make certain that my hair is tied safely back, away from my face so it does not obstruct my work or obscure my view. And finally all stools need to be tucked under desks as I may trip or stumble over on of them, spilling harmful chemicals and endangering myself and others around me. The independent variable I will be changing is the surface area of the calcium carbonate chips. The range of values I will use range from 0ml to 250ml. I will use at least 8 values for this variable. The reason for choosing 8 is explained later on under the 'preliminary work' section. The interval between the values obtained will be 1 minute. The variables I am keeping the same are the amount, concentration, and temperature of the hydrochloric acid and the amount of calcium carbonate used. My experiment will be a fair test because I will keep everything the same except for the independent variable (the surface area of the calcium carbonate chips). ...read more.

Conclusion

Errors that may have been made during the experiment were I may have not been able to ensure that the measuring cylinder was completely full every time, as I only had a limited amount of time to complete all of my experiments, so I could only have a few tries to get it exactly right. Also, some errors out of my control may have affected the result, such as the temperature of the room, and the amount of people moving around, affecting my experiment, in the room. The reliability of my results was fairly accurate, as the majority of the time I was very accurate with my weighing and measuring, however, things such as the environment the experiments were done in could have been improved, which would have improved the accuracy of my findings. If I were to do this investigation again there would be several things I would improve upon. I would look for a more accurate way of conducting this experiment, although I don't exactly know how this would be done, I would like to find a more accurate way of collecting the Co2 produced, as I feel having an upside down measuring cylinder sticking out of a water bath is not really and accurate way of collecting evidence. If I were to do extension work for this investigation I would look at the way the temperature of the acid affected the rate of Co2 produced as collision theory says that the higher temperature of the acid, the more charge the particles will have, speeding up the number of collisions that will occur, which will speed up the production of Co2. I could also look at the way the concentration of the acid would affect the rate of reaction, as I predict that the higher the concentration of the acid, the faster the reaction will occur. ...read more.

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