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Rate of A Chemical Reaction

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Introduction

How Does Concentration Affect The Rate of A Chemical Reaction? We are going to investigate how the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid is affected by changing the concentration of the acid. To do this I will be changing the concentration of acid slightly while keeping the amount of magnesium the same. I will then record how long it takes for the magnesium to totally react in the range of acid concentrations. Prediction I predict that as the concentration of the acid is decreased, the rate of a chemical reaction on the magnesium is increased. Scientific Reason I believe that this will happen because, as you decrease the concentration of the hydrochloric acid, you are decreasing the amount of acid particles. Because there are fewer particles, there is less chance of them colliding with the magnesium, making the rate of the chemical reaction slower. For a chemical reaction to take place, some bonds in the reactants must be broken. The colliding particles must have enough energy to break these bonds. This minimum amount of energy is called the activation energy. Only the very fastest moving particles have enough energy to break bonds. ...read more.

Middle

over them * Collect all of the apparatus * Measure out the volume of hydrochloric acid and water in a measuring cylinder. Firstly measuring 100% acid and 0% water, then 80% acid and 20% water and so on. * Cut the magnesium measuring 2cm * Sand down the magnesium to remove the oxides * Get someone to hold the stop clock to record the time taken for the magnesium to totally react * Repeat the experiment three times with the same solution and work out an average time. * Record all of the results in a table. Results Time taken for Mg to dissolve (s) Concentration Of Solution % Amount of Water cm3 Amount of Acid cm3 1st Try 2nd Try 3rd Try Retry Average 100 0 25 16.17 15.33 16.82 16.11 80 5 20 20.32 17.93 19.91 19.39 60 10 15 32.58 31.32 30.93 31.61 40 15 10 75.82 73.99 79.01 74.62 74.81 20 20 5 331.73 381.02 498.09 321.32 344.36 The figures in bold were anomalous results. I can tell this by looking at the previous results for the different solutions. ...read more.

Conclusion

When I conducted the experiment and found two anomalous results, I repeated the test again for each concentration to get a more accurate result. I then used this result to work out the average time taken for the magnesium to react in the hydrochloric acid. As I look back on the experiment I have realized that there are a number of things which I could have done to improve the accuracy of the results. Firstly I could have repeated the experiment more than three times for each concentration and then worked out an average to give a more accurate result. I could have also measured the mass of the magnesium and not the length, because even though it may show to be the same length, the magnesium may have been slightly thicker or thinner and this would mean a different mass. Overall, I think the experiment showed very good and accurate results. It showed the results which we had expected and the experiment wasn't hard to conduct because there weren't any extremely difficult measurements to find. I can now say without a doubt that this experiment proves that concentration affects chemical reactions. The results table and graph show you that as you increase the solutions concentration, the time taken for the magnesium to react totally decreases. ...read more.

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