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Rate of Reaction

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Introduction

Science Investigation (Chemistry) - Rate of Reaction Planning: Outline: I will investigate the relationship between the rate of a reaction and the amount of catalyst added to the reaction. I will use hydrogen peroxide and speed pu the decomposition of it by adding manganese(IV), MnO2 as catalyst. Fair test: In order to maintain fair test conditions I will control variables that will affect the rate of reaction. The factors that are able to affect the rate of reaction include: * Temperature * Surface Area * Concentration * Catalyst Since I am investigating the relationship between rate of reaction and catalysts, the other 3 factors will remain constant throughout the experiment. Temperature: At higher temperatures, the faster moving particles have more kinetic energy. This means they are moving quicker and will collide more often and with more energy, causing an increase in the number of effective collisions. Surface Area: If more surface area is available, the number of particles of the solid reactant available for collision will increase. However, I am dealing with hydrogen peroxide (liquid) then there isn't a surface area for me to control. Concentration: More concentrated solutions contain more particles in the same space, making them more likely to collide. The increase in the number of collisions with sufficient energy increases the rate of reaction. These explain why I would need to control those factors because they would affect my results dramatically. ...read more.

Middle

12 11.00 4.00 40 14 15 15 14.67 3.67 50 20 19 20 19.67 5.00 60 23 23 24 23.33 3.67 0.04g catalyst used Amount of gas produced (cm�) Time (sec) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Average Gain in gas produced from previous (cm�) 0 0 0 0 0.00 0.00 10 5 8 7 6.67 6.67 20 13 14 13 13.33 6.67 30 20 19 19 19.33 6.00 40 29 30 28 29.00 9.67 50 35 35 36 35.33 6.33 60 42 41 40 41.00 5.67 0.06g catalyst used Amount of gas produced (cm�) Time (sec) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Average Gain in gas produced from previous (cm�) 0 0 0 0 0.00 0.00 10 10 11 11 10.67 10.67 20 22 21 20 21.00 10.33 30 32 30 33 31.67 10.67 40 40 39 41 40.00 8.33 50 46 48 46 46.67 6.67 60 51 50 50 50.33 3.67 0.08g catalyst used Amount of gas produced (cm�) Time (sec) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Average Gain in gas produced from previous (cm�) 0 0 0 0 0.00 0.00 10 18 18 16 17.33 17.33 20 31 30 29 30.00 12.67 30 40 41 41 40.67 10.67 40 48 47 45 46.67 6.00 50 55 54 55 54.67 8.00 60 62 61 62 61.67 7.00 0.10g catalyst used Amount of gas produced (cm�) Time (sec) ...read more.

Conclusion

Looking back on experiment I believe that there are many ways to improve it. One way is the accuracy of the measuring of the catalyst this can be done by requesting a new scale which should not have any chances of any faulty measurements. This would make every measurement of catalyst I take virtually no faults at all. My graph is very basic and one way to improve this will be to increase my range of tests, this will allow me to know where exactly the point where no more oxygen can be created is. Maybe doing until 2 minutes (120 sec) will allow me to locate where it is. I think the timing was as accurate and reliable as it could be, but only a second or third experiment would back that up fully. The equipment we used was reasonable but not the best, but for the conditions we were based in it was the best we were going to get. I could investigate on what type of catalysts is more effective for the speeding up of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Possible catalyst selections include: * Manganese IV oxide (MnO2) * Zinc oxide (ZnO) * Lead IV oxide (PbO2) * Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) * Iron III oxide (Fe2O3) * Copper II oxide (CuO) * Copper III oxide (Cu2O) This might help me understand more about catalyst and what type of metals are best for catalysts, such as: transition metals. I could investigate on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and keeping the catalyst constant, and also I can investigate on the effects of pH with rates of reaction. ...read more.

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