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# rate of reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Rates of reaction The rate of reaction is the speed that a reaction takes place and how long it occurs for. Chemical reactions only occur when reacting particles collide with each other with sufficient energy to react. The minimum amount of energy required to cause this reaction is called the activation energy. There are different variables to consider when measuring the rates of reaction. These can include catalysts, surface area, temperature or concentration of the liquid. These being changed can either increase or decrease the rate at which the reaction takes place. * Temperature: in a cold reaction mixture the particles are moving quite slowly-the particles will collide with each other less often, with less energy, and fewer collisions will succeed to occur. However if we heat the reaction mixture the particles create kinetic energy and will move more quickly-the particles will collide more often. It is hard to measure accurately the temperatures and will be hard to keep precise when obtaining evidence so I won't experiment with the temperature. * Concentration: in a reaction where a reactant is low in concentration, the particles are spread out and will collide with each other less often resulting in a slower reaction. ...read more.

Middle

I will also have a rubber tube and bung to transport the gas into the syringe. Results of Rates of Reaction Experiments: Throughout the experiments, I used 2 molar hydrochloric acid and 1gram of medium sized marble chips. This was to keep the tests fair. I varied the concentration of he hydrochloric acid by combining different amounts of water with different amounts of hydrochloric acid to decrease the molarity but keep the same amount of liquid in the equation. 10ml acid with 0ml water Time 1st result 2nd result 3rd result 20 0 0 0 40 1 2 4 60 8 4 9 80 11 6 12 100 14 9 15 120 16 12 18 140 18 15 19 160 20 15 21 180 22 18 24 200 25 18 24 220 28 21 24 240 28 22 260 28 22 280 25 300 25 320 25 9ml acid with 1ml water Time 1st result 2nd result 3rd result 20 8 13 12 40 16 22 17 60 22 29 22 80 24 38 27 100 28 44 31 120 35 50 35 140 39 55 40 160 40 60 43 180 50 70 46 200 62 73 50 220 73 76 52 240 77 78 53 260 83 82 57 280 87 83 60 300 90 85 ...read more.

Conclusion

The results for 50%, 80% and 100% were anomalous because 100% was below 90% and 70% while 50% was the lowest result, lower than 30% and also, 80% was lower than 80%. But it could also be seen as 30%, 70%, and 100% being anomalous because 30% is higher than 50%, 70% is higher than 80% and 100% and 100% is lower than 70% and 90%. So in comparison to reach a final result, it is impossible to define which result/results were anomalous except I came to the conclusion that 100% is anomalous. Looking back on when I performed the experiments, I have realised that I obtained the results of each variable on different days so I came to the conclusion that we may have used different equipment each day which caused the range in results. I am quite sure that it was the gas syringe that was faulty but that is the only reasonable explanation I can think of. I received plenty of results to come to a conclusion and if I could do it again, I would do more variables and test each variable one or two more times so that I can pick out the best three for each variable. That would give me a more consistent result. Leah Rohlf-Baldock GCSE Science Coursework Rates of Reaction 07/12/2007 Page 1 ...read more.

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