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Rate of Reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigation of the Rate of Reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid Contents > Aim/Introduction Page 2 > Method Page 3 > Fair Test Page 5 > Collision Theory Page 6 > Preliminary work Page 7 > Safety Page 9 > Accuracy of Measurements Page 9 > Reliability of Method Page 10 > Results/Data Page 11 > Graphs Page 13 > Analysis Page 18 > Evaluation Page 19 An investigation of the Rate of Reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid Aim- To find the rate of reaction after the variable of concentration is changed in the acid. Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg, the atomic number 12, and an atomic mass of 24.31. Magnesium is the ninth most abundant element in the universe by mass. It constitutes about 2% of the Earth's crust by mass, and it is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater. Magnesium ions are essential to all living cells, and it is the 11th most abundant element by mass in the human body. The free element (metal) is not found in nature. Once produced from magnesium salts, this alkaline earth metal is used as an alloying agent to make aluminium-magnesium alloys. Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). It is a strong acid, and the major component of gastric acid. It is also widely used in industry. Hydrochloric acid must be handled with appropriate safety precautions because it is a highly corrosive liquid. Magnesium and dilute hydrochloric acid react together according to the equation below: magnesium(s) + hydrochloric acid(l) magnesium chloride(l) + hydrogen(g) Mg + HCl MgCl + H2 (symbol equation) 2Mg + 2HCl 2MgCl + H2 (balanced equation) In this reaction, the gas hydrogen is produced, so I can measure the rate of reaction by measuring the amount of gas produced. The hydrogen produced makes the reaction mixture effervesce (fizz). The faster the reaction, the shorter the time taken for the effervescence to stop. ...read more.

Middle

In addition, we had to stand up at all times during the experiment. This was because if an accident was to have happened we could move away from it faster then f we were seated. Another safety procedure that I followed was that during the experiment, I set up all the equipment in the middle of the table so that nothing would fall of the ends. The last safety thing I did was tie my hair back so it didn't come in the way. Hair is flammable so if anything was to catch fire, my hair would be burnt. Accuracy of Measurements To make sure my experiment will be accurate I will make sure I measure the amount of Hydrochloric acid as accurately as possible by reading the lower meniscus. I will also be using a digital stopwatch, which will make the readings more accurate as it will be to the nearest millisecond. I will also try and read my readings as accurately as possible and will also make sure the syringe is completely in before every experiment. One more final thing that I will do to make sure my experiment is accurate, I will rinse out equipment to make sure I do not have any excess Hydrochloric acid remaining in the beaker or any of the products remaining every time I have finished using the equipment/before each experiment as this will affect my experiment. Many precautions/methods/apparatus were used to measure quantities accurately. * A ruler was used to measure the magnesium strips. The ruler was very accurate and easy to use because of its straight edge. The strips were measured in millimetres (mm). Each strip had to be 30 mm in length. I would line the strip against my ruler, score a line with my pencil and then just break it off because the magnesium would be so thin. * A measuring cylinder would be use to measure liquids precisely. In this experiment I use measuring cylinders to measure hydrochloric acid and water. ...read more.

Conclusion

I also tried to make sure that I read the scale reading on the gas syringe every 15 seconds on the dot, as the gas continues to flow so I had to read the reading as soon as possible to get accurate results. I had also made sure the syringe was completely in before every experiment to make sure the test is fair. I could have improved my experiment by having quicker reflexes, which would have made my results even more accurate, as I could be faster at reading the readings on the gas syringe, giving me exact result every 15 seconds. If I had faster reflexes I would have had more accurate results. To make sure my results are reliable I made sure I repeated the experiment atleast twice until I got two sets of readings which are similar. I have also collected enough readings to make sure that my graphs can be reliable and that it will allow me to make a reliable conclusion. However I could have made my experiment more reliable by increasing the number of readings and also by increasing the number of different concentrations I have investigated, as there will be more results to give me a consistent line/curve of best fit, plus this will make my readings more reliable as there will be more evidence if whether my results will fit onto my graph or not and whether all concentrations follow this rule. I can also see if this works with very small concentrations or not. I could have also increases the number of times I repeated my test at least one more time to make my experiment more reliable for example to have three sets of similar results for each concentrations. Overall to summarise, I felt that my experiment was a success because I met my aim and ended of a good sets of results and a conclusion about rate of reactivity. ...read more.

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