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Rate Of Reaction

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Introduction

Aim: The rate of reaction can be altered by varying temperature or concentration, or by changing the surface area of a solid reactant, or by adding a catalyst and increasing the pressure. Here I have listed the I am going to investigate the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium Thiosulphate, which is a precipitation reaction, and their rate depends on temperature and the concentrations of the solutions. I will repeat this experiment at several different temperatures and concentrations. I am going to observe how the concentration and temperature will affect the rate of reaction (temperature /average time).Below is the word and symbol equation that they react in. Sodium Thiosulphate + Hydrochloric acid -> Sodium Chloride + Sulphur + Sulphur Dioxide + Water Na2S2O3 (aq) + 2HCl (aq) -> 2NaCl (aq) + S (s) + SO2 (g) + H2O (l) Prediction: For temperature I have predicted that when the temperature is increased the time and rate are likely to decrease as the reaction will happen faster. I predicted this because of the collision theory, and because I was certain that the higher the temperature would be the faster the particles will moves, therefore they will combine quicker with the other substance which is likely to make the reaction faster. The solid sulphur formed in this reaction makes the colourless solution go cloudy. Concentration, just as increasing the temperature will increase the number of particles colliding, so will the concentration. This experiment is basically about more particles into the reaction, the probability of the colliding (crashing) is increased so the reaction is bound to take place faster. This variable is continuous and independent. As I mentioned in my aim I will be experimenting on this reaction. I predict that by doubling the concentration of the acid, the rate of reaction will double, however the time will decrease as it is happening faster. I am going to test the two variables concentration and temperature. ...read more.

Middle

Temperature: Prepare the following solutions: *??Hydrochloric acid *??Sodium thiosulphate Rinse, clean and set up the apparatus. Measure out 20 cm of both of the solutions; this can be increased depending on the investigator will. However as this test is about temperature it is absolutely essential that the amount of both of the solutions is identical as this will make it a fair test, which is essential for reliable and accurate results. Pour the sodium thiosulphate into a clean conical flask. Leave the HCL in the measuring cylinder, however make sure that you don't drop it hence put it in a safe place. Get the heat proof mat - then place it on the work place. After this is I shall get the tripod and place in on top of the heat proof mat. Then collect the gauze and place that upon the tripod. Put the Bunsen burner beneath the tripod. There is a rotatable part close to the bottom of the Bunsen which should be turned so that the air hole. This would make the flame on safety form. A rubber pipe should be attached to the source that provides the gas, and to the Bunsen burner. The gas should only be turned on once the Bunsen is ready to light. Place the match or a stick with a little flame (or any source that provides a flame), on top of the Bunsen and then it will catch fire. Then get the conical flask with sodium thiosulphate, place a thermometer inside it. Use the tongs or you hand to place the conical flask on top of the gauze that is placed on the tripod. Now as I am heating the liquid, to speed thing up, I will rotate the part on the bottom of the Bunsen so that the air hole is closed. This should be stopped when the temperature is 20�, as this is the lowest one I will test. ...read more.

Conclusion

As a result, they take up more space, and the substance expands. At lower temperatures, particles have less energy, move more slowly, and have fewer collisions. They take up less space, and the substance contracts. Increasing the concentration of something means having more particles in a certain amount of space. Moreover, as the result of the number of particles increase the space gets squashed so there is a higher chance that they will collide and react. Therefore, when the 2 liquids are poured into the reaction vessel there are more particles so reaction is faster Although I predicted that concentration would have the greatest affect on the reaction rate, it was in fact temperature. This was mainly because the concentration was tested at room temperature which wasn't enough to get many of the particles to activation energy levels. In addition, in the solution there were plenty of particles so concentration wasn't important. Evaluation: The investigation could have been improved by testing the temperature variable on the computer as the. It would also have helped to test each concentration and temperature more than once to ensure that the results were true. I could also have used a burette to measure out the reactants although the measuring cylinder was quite accurate. I think I could have improved my investigation by: � Obtaining more results to get a better overall result. � I used ICT to display my coursework, but I did not use it in any way that affected the experiment. � I would like to do a further experiment to confirm my results. However I am restricted by time and the available facilities which means I cannot repeat it. � Also instead of using a cross on a piece of paper I could use a single beam of light until it could no longer be seen � Use of computer to aid analysis of results ?? ?? ?? ?? Science Coursework: Rate Of Reaction Candidate Name: Farhan Khalid 9Sc5 Centre Name: Wembley High Technology College Centre no: 12346 Teacher: Mr Bullock Page 1 of 17 ...read more.

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