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# Rate Of Reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigating the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips. Aim. In the investigation I am going to find out the rate of reaction by measuring the amount of gas produced and weight loss in a reaction between small/large pieces of Marble Chips (Calcium Carbonate) and Hydrochloric acid per minute Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid + Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide CaCO3 + 2HCl + CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 Planning The rate of reaction tells us how fast or slow a chemical takes to react. The reactant can be measured by the amount used or the amount of product gained in an amount of time. The rate of reaction is affected by 6 things: * Temperature * State of division * Catalysts * Concentration of reaction * Stirring and Shaking * Pressure. Factors Temperature: If the particles in a reaction are heated then they will gain much more kinetics energy. Low temperature particles will be less able to successfully collide and react because of their low energy. A high temperature particle would have more energy, making it move faster and making more successful collisions, this would be the rate of reaction increasing because more particles would be colliding with each other. ...read more.

Middle

* The temperature of the Hydrochloric acid must also be kept at a constant temperature due to how quickly or slowly a reaction takes place Accuracy To ensure my experiment is as accurate as possible I will measure the solutions very accurately. I will do the same when measuring the marble chips, the weighing scales I will be using are correct to 2 decimal places. I think 2 decimal places are accurate enough for this experiment as I am only using the weighing scales to measure the marble chips. I will repeat the experiment three times to make sure my average consists of a good range of results. The hydrochloric acid goes up by 0.5 molar every time so our results will not be too similar. A good range of results will be produced. If I find any anonymous results I will record them but then I will repeat the same test to see if I get a result which follows some sort of pattern. I will record my results accurately to 2 significant figures. Prediction Using my scientific knowledge I predict that as the concentration of the acid increases the rate of the reaction will accelerate causing Carbon Dioxide to be given off at a faster rate. ...read more.

Conclusion

To make the test a fairer, I could try and make the size of the chips the same, although this is almost impossible, since all marble chips are different. To make my results more accurate and reliable I could repeat the experiment a total of five times or more. The reaction could have speeded up due to human error because the conical flask could not have been washed out properly. So some acid could have been left in the beaker, making the reaction speed up. Then making my results wrong. I could try the reactions at different temperatures. I could then find the optimum temperature for the reactions to take place at. I could also try different acids such as sulphuric acid and nitric acid; I could then compare the results and ascertain which acid reacts more quickly with the marble chips. Conclusion. I have been able to successfully test the relationship between the rate of reaction between HCl and marble chips, depending on their concentration. The rate of reaction is directly proportional to the concentration, this agrees to the prediction I made. Increasing the concentration,, also meant the increase of H ions in the solution, which means that there will be more collisions between the particles. To me my results were accurate enough and the predictions I made were conclusive ...read more.

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This is fairly basic investigation into the affect of concentration on rate of reaction. Some good diagrams should be used to support the written content. It does however need to be written with more clarity and depth. The lack of experimental data limits its reliability. Improvements have been suggested throughout.

Marked by teacher Cornelia Bruce 18/03/2013

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