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Rate of Reaction and how it can be changed depending on important factors such as surface area or concentration.

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Introduction

Rate of Reaction and how it can be changed depending on important factors such as surface area or concentration Aim: We are investigating the amount of hydrogen gas produced when using different concentrations of hydrochloric acid with magnesium. Prediction: I hypothesize that the higher the concentration of acid that I use, the less time the reaction would take which would result in a higher rate of reaction. The solvent and solute will completely react and produce the product hydrogen much quicker. Planning: We are investigating the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid, how it can be affected if factors were changed and the amount of hydrogen gas given off as one of the final products. We could change the temperature surrounding the experiment in order to change the results that we acquire, the concentration of the acid that we are using, the surface area of the metal and also its shape and finally the use of a catalyst. I have chosen to use the level of concentration as it is not as difficult as the others to set up and investigate. We could measure the volume of gas given after the acid and metal have reacted, the time taken for the metal, in our case magnesium, to disappear or the change in temperature towards the end of the experiment, for instance is it an endothermic or exothermic reaction. Like I said before we will change the concentration of the hydrochloric acid. We will measure the volume of gas given off as a final product. Our question is what we will keep the same. We will keep the same, the temperature, the use of a catalyst to any of the experiments and the surface area of the magnesium ribbon and what shape it is when subjected to the acid. ...read more.

Middle

Because the measuring cylinder we used went up in only 1cm at a time, we couldn't get very precise readings. To make our results as accurate as we could, we had two people checking the amount of gas collected so if a person missed the amount, the other could tell it. This way, we had less confusion in the group and everyone got to be part of the experiment. Results: 0.75m: Time (s) 1st time (cm) 2nd time (cm) Average (cm) 30 19 19 19 60 36 38 37 90 45 49 47 120 55 55 55 150 59 61 60 180 62 65 64 210 65 67 66 240 68 68 68 270 69 69 69 300 70 70 70 Final reading (cm) 70 70 70 1m: Time (s) 1st time (cm) 2nd time (cm) Average (cm) 30 22 22 22 60 39 41 40 90 49 52 51 120 56 60 58 150 61 63 62 180 64 67 66 210 68 68 68 240 69 69 69 270 70 70 70 300 70 70 70 Final reading (cm) 70 70 70 1.25m: Time (s) 1st time (cm) 2nd time (cm) Average (cm) 20 18 20 19 40 45 49 47 60 57 60 59 80 62 61 62 100 65 69 67 120 68 69 69 140 70 70 70 160 70 70 70 180 70 70 70 200 70 70 70 Final reading (cm) 70 70 70 1.5m: Time (s) 1st time (cm) 2nd time (cm) Average (cm) 10 15 18 17 20 25 26 26 30 36 38 37 40 44 49 47 50 50 54 52 60 54 60 57 70 58 62 60 80 61 63 62 90 63 64 64 100 65 66 66 120 67 69 68 140 70 70 70 Final reading (cm) ...read more.

Conclusion

Overall, the method was good but like everything else, it could be improved. It was generally a fair test but a few things may have altered the results, such as after a few of the first experiments, one of the windows was opened in the room and cold air rushed in. I don't if this had anything to do with the experiment but it could be something to think over when planning the next investigation. I feel that the measurements were easy to take measurements as we didn't miss a single reading. We could have repeated the experiment once more to be a little more accurate, the more results there are, the better it is after all. All the graphs showed a pattern to do with the concentration levels of the acids, the trends got higher for rate of reaction, the time decreased for stronger acids and less time was taken to. We kept the few odd results we got as it gave us something to talk about and think about in the future. I strongly believe that the results that we got, supported our conclusion as no matter whose results you saw, all showed the same trend and this proves that the results were reliable. Next time, I would use more concentrations of acids, so that we can be even more accurate and sure about the results. Further investigations you could think about could be changing the temperature of the experiment and investigate if it alters your experiments at all. You could also change the surface area of the metal such as having a block, or reacting it in a powder form. Catalysts could be added to the reaction to see if they show a major difference. ...read more.

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