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Rate of Reaction between CaC03 and HCL.

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Introduction

Rate of Reaction between CaC03 and HCL Aim In this experiment I have the choice to change any variable to see what effects it could have. I am changing the temperature of the hydrochloric acid to investigate the rates of which the Calcium Carbonate reacts with it, and to discover what amount at which temperatures release a more quantity of gas (carbon dioxide). The other variables I could choose from to investigate are: � Size of the Calcium Carbonate Chips. � Concentration of the hydrochloric acid- � How weak or strong it is. � The temperature of the acid. � Surface area of the conicle flask. � Amount of chips. � Amount of Hydrochloric acid. The Equation. Calcium + Hydrochloric (r) Calcium + Water + Carbon Dioxide. Carbonate Acid Chloride The Chemical Equation CaCo (s) + 2HCl (aq) (r) Ca Cl (aq) + H O +Co (g). Prediction I predict that as the temperature rises, the average Speed of particles increases. At high temperatures, there are more collisions per second and this results in an increase in the rate of reaction. A reaction will only occur if the colliding particles possesses more than a certain minimum amount of energy. This minimum energy for a reaction to occur is known as the activation energy. EA. The activation energy enables chemical bonds to stretch and break the rearrangements of the atom, ions and electrons to occur as the reaction proceeds. As a result of the temperature rising I predict that the particles in the marble chips receive more energy and start colliding with each other to increase the reaction, the rate of it simply depends on how hard and often the reacting particles collide with each other. ...read more.

Middle

� The gas syringe need to be watched while collecting the amounts of gas, incase the amount is suddenly too much and the syringe falls out of the end and breaks! � Marble chips however small or large can be sometimes inhaled or lodged in bodily organs and orifices like eyes and ears or noses. These dangers should be noted however unlikely. Fair testing To keep it a fair test, the variables need to be kept the same to prevent getting the wrong results. The temperature of the acid needs to be accurate to get the correct rates of the reacting marble chips. The size of the marble Chips needs to be kept the same because of them either having a larger or smaller surface area for the acid to react with. If it has a larger surface area than the previous chips the results would be wrong because it has a larger area to react with, therefore the time it would have taken would be more than should be. If it were compared to the smaller chips the time would be less because of it having a smaller surface area for the reaction to act on. The Hydrochloric acid cannot be used again after the reaction otherwise the acid will be less strong to act on the marble chips. When I am reading the syringe for results I need to be accurate in the amount I have observed because it could affect my results. On each experiment at different temperatures I have to make sure the amount of marble chips and acid are the same each time to help me in getting the best results possible. ...read more.

Conclusion

The amounts of gas are not actually spot on accurate because I would have needed more time to prepare another experiment, making absolute certain all the fair testing was kept to a extremely high standard and the syringes measurements must be more accurate to read off to get the actual amount of that time and temperature, for example it needs to be to a more finer scale to improve accuracy but then again it would still cause difficulty to read because of the speed the reaction happens. The graphs and tables still show however the effects I wanted because the rise in the amount of gas as the temperature rises looks correct, I can still predict another set of experiments from them for other temperatures by using the pattern in them because all the information necessary was there which I needed to make a valuable reading. The graphs proved to me my predictions were correct, as I didn't get any anomalous results, apart from the final graph when all the temperatures were put together. This final graph shows clearly that 25� and 40� were producing different amounts of gas than expected, The 25� was producing more gas than 40�, and this is unusual because the highest temperature should produce more. At the beginning of the experiment I decided that it might be interesting to see if the temperature at the start changes from the finish temperature, I was interested to see if anything did change, so I thought for quite a while by using my own knowledge and wrote down what my theory was in my prediction. I was very pleased when I discovered that my theory was correct. ...read more.

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