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# Rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid

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Introduction

Rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid Aim: To investigate whether the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the amount of carbon dioxide given off by marble chips while reacting with the acid. This is the word equation for my investigation: Hydrochloric Acid + Calcium Carbonate => Calcium Chloride + Carbon Dioxide + Water Introduction: A collision between particles is needed for a reaction to take place in order to form a product. Some collisions are successful and give a product while others do not because particles do not have enough energy. A theory named 'The Collision Theory' states that when there is a higher concentration, there are more particles therefore there are more collisions resulting in a higher reaction rate. This also applies to my experiment because, as the concentration of the acid increases, there are more acid particles in the same volume. Therefore there is a greater chance of acid particles colliding, and reacting with more particles on the surface of the marble resulting in a faster reaction and production of carbon dioxide. Therefore when the concentration doubles, the number of particles that are able to collide are also doubled therefore the rate of reaction also doubles until the particles are used up and the reaction slows gradually to a stop. ...read more.

Middle

13) Record Results in a table of results. 14) Repeat steps 6-13, two more times for 0.2 molar of HCL. 15) Repeat steps 6 - 14 for 0.4 molar, 0.6 molar, 0.8 molar and 1.0 molar of HCL. Results: Concentration of Acid Reading No. Reading volume of CO2 (cm3) Average Volume Rate Cm3 of CO2 /minute. 0.2 molar 1 10.2 8.6 25.9 2 7.1 3 8.6 0.4 molar 1 17.7 17.1 51.4 2 17.3 3 16.4 0.6 molar 1 24.7 25.6 76.9 2 27.7 3 24.5 0.8 molar 1 34.4 34.3 102.9 2 33.9 3 34.6 1.0 molar 1 43.7 43.9 131.6 2 43.6 3 44.3 Fig1.1 Conclusion: My hypothesis when supported by the results was proved correct because when the concentration of HCL was increased the rate of reaction, i.e. the production of CO2 also increased. e.g. Concentration 0.2 molar HCL 1.0molar HCL Rate 25.9 cm3/min 131.6cm3/min Another trend observed is that the increase is proportionate. The results obtained proved that the rate of reaction is doubled when the concentration of HCL is doubled (there were minor differences- 1 decimal places difference). Conc. 0.2 molar 0.4 molar Rate 25.9 51.4 The following patterns can also be observed by looking at the line graph- fig 1.1 showing ...read more.

Conclusion

2) Consider additional factors other than only concentration of HCL in measuring the rate of reaction of CO2 such as How Temperature affects the rate of reaction, How Surface area affects the rate of reaction and how catalysts affect the rate of reaction. 3) Use other techniques such as 'How much' time needed to produce 'How much' gas instead of 'How much' gas produced in 'How much' time. 4) Would repeat experiment a few more times for each concentration of HCL in order to receive additional accuracy. 5) Use a water bath for keeping the temperature constant. 6) Use catalysts in speeding which would further increase the speed of the reaction. 7) Use other methods such as keeping a beaker with HCL and calcium carbonate and place cotton on the opening which would let the CO2 produced escape but prevent the air from entering. I could then measure the loss of CO2 by observing the weighing balance. 8) Use more of safety precautions by wearing safety goggles as HCL is harmful for the eyes. 9) Make the experiment more accurate using equipment such as burettes and pipettes. 10) Would research and implement on better techniques to keep the room surroundings constant. ---------------------x---------------------x-----------------------x--------------------------x------------ . ?? ?? ?? ?? Prasal. S. Rohra- X-B ...read more.

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## Here's what a star student thought of this essay

4 star(s)

### Response to the question

The student has answered the question set very well and it is very clearly and logically laid out. This helps the examiner identify the relevant points more quickly and helps the student present a coursework that is fluent and well ...

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### Response to the question

The student has answered the question set very well and it is very clearly and logically laid out. This helps the examiner identify the relevant points more quickly and helps the student present a coursework that is fluent and well structured. However, my main criticism of this piece of work is that the absence of using the subscripts or superscripts in word processing the piece of work. Strictly speaking, writing CaCO3 is incorrect. Another point I found was that the student used HCL as the formula for hydrochloric acid of which is wrong as it should be HCl Ã¢â‚¬â€œ special care should have been taken to not allow the auto correct of the word processing program used to correct it, if this was the case. Yet despite this, this was a piece of work at a very high standard and the student clearly shows a strong understanding of the question set.

### Level of analysis

The analysis needed for this piece of work was analysing the results obtained and then comparing it with the hypothesis that they came up with beforehand. The student did this very well and their clear structure and layout helped immensely to guide the examiner through the experiment conducted by the student in order to answer this question. Their judgement (reviewing their hypothesis) was very well done. The student acknowledged the mistakes and changed them accordingly by using the experimental data obtained to support the changes made. The use of diagrams helped guide examiner through the work as well and made it easier to understand exactly what was happening.
One striking thing in their evaluation for improvements was their statement of taking more safety precautions and therefore suggesting the usage of goggles. Especially when handling acid, I believe it is imperative that a student wears goggles when conducting the experiment. Truly, I do not believe that a teacher would put the student at risk by allowing them not to wear goggles. This one piece of information suggests that the student perhaps lacks the basics in understanding that acids are an irritant and can be very harmful if there is eye contact with it and depending on its concentration, any contact at all.

### Quality of writing

There was only one typo in the whole piece of work and it was writing Ã¢â‚¬Å“thenÃ¢â‚¬Â instead of Ã¢â‚¬Å“thanÃ¢â‚¬Â. This perhaps shows that more care needs to be taken when proof reading over coursework. The student has used the appropriate scientific terms required for GCSE however, as noted before, they should be using superscripts and subscripts where appropriate and not side stepping this by writing it without. However, one term that the student lacks understanding of is the difference between accuracy and reliability. It is very common for GCSE students to get them mixed up but accuracy is related to the scale on the measuring instruments whilst reliability is whether the results are consistent (i.e. repeatable). Whilst both are very similar, it is important to learn the definitions. The student has produced a very high level piece of work and shows very good understanding of the experiment and therefore their answer was very well developed and supported.

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Reviewed by crystalclearmagic 28/02/2012

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