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Rate of Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid

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Introduction

Rate of Reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric acid The Problem To investigate how changing the concentration of acid effects the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. Background Knowledge Symbol equation CaCO3 + 2 HCl --> CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O Observations * Fizzing and bubbling. * The white solid disappears to give a colourless solution * Container heats up Rate of reaction Rate of reaction is the speed at which a reaction occurs, it can be found by recording the amount of reactants used up or the amount of product formed in a given time. For example in the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate a fine yellow precipitate of sulphur is produced. The rate of reaction can be measured as follows. 1. A cross is marked on a piece of paper. 2. A beaker with a volume of sodium thiosulpate is placed on the cross. 3. Dilute hydrochloric acid is added and a stopwatch is started and the time taken for the cross to be no longer visible from above. ...read more.

Middle

3 SURFACE AREA If the surface area of one or more of the reactants is increased then the rate of reaction increases. As the surface area of the reactants increases then the area of contact between the reactants increases which in turn increases the chance of particles colliding. More successful collisions means a faster reaction. 4 PESENCE OF CATYLIST If a catalyst is present then a collision needs less energy to be successful. More successful collisions means faster rate of reaction. Variables * Mass of calcium carbonate * Volume of acid * Concentration of acid * Surface area of marble chips * Presence of catalyst * Temperature Independent variable * Concentration of acid ( 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 + 2.5 M) Dependant variable * Volume of CO2 produced every 15 seconds four two and a half minutes. Controlled variables * Mass of calcium carbonate * Volume of acid * Surface area of marble chips * Presence of catalyst * Temperature Prediction I think that as the concentration of the acid used increases so will the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Conclusion

7. Repeat for all concentrations of acid. Safety Precautions * Handle glass objects with care * Wear glasses to protect eyes * Handle acid with care Strategy for dealing results the results Recordings will be taken every fifteen seconds for two and a half minutes. This will be repeated three times for accuracy. The results will be recorded in a table like the one below. Concentration of acid _________ M/dm2 Time (seconds) Volume of CO2 produced (cm2) 1 2 3 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 When all the results are recorded we can find the average of the three results found at each time with the same concentration of acid. This can then be plotted on a graph as shown. One for each concentration Based on my prediction I would expect the graph to look like this. Then I will work out the rate of reaction for each of the concentrations using this formula Rate of reaction = total amount of carbon dioxide produced In volume of CO2/min 2 1/2 This could then be plotted on a graph of concentration of acid against rate of reaction as shown below. I would expect the graph to look like this. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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