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Rate of reaction between marble chips and acid

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Rate of reaction between marble chips And acid Introduction This is a test to demonstrate the reaction rate between marble chips (CaCO) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Hopefully we will be able to prove that the concentration of the acid is directly proportional to the reaction rate. Aim To discover if the concentration of acid is directly proportional to the rate of reaction, by monitoring the amount of gas given off as the reaction takes place. Prediction We believe that the concentration of the acid will be directly proportional to the rate of reaction. We believe this due to the following theory: The collision theory: This theory states that for a reaction to occur the reactant particles need to react with sufficient energy. This is called Activation energy. This is shown in the below diagram: energy activation energy reactants products time Anything that aids a reaction would have to either give the particles energy or use a catalyst to decrease the amount of energy needed to react. The more reactant particles there are (or the stronger the concentration) the harder the reaction will occur. Using the above theory, I predict that the higher molar the acid is, the more CO2 will be given off. I predict that the following reaction will occur: CaCO3(s) ...read more.

Middle

Finally I will not add a catalyst. The only variable will be the concentration of the acid. We will perform this experiment in the following steps: 1. I will the tank with water. 2. Fill the measuring cylinder with water, making sure that there are no air bubbles present. 3. Turn the measuring cylinder upside down, making sure that the open end is in the water at all times so no water escapes. 4. Add the marble chips to a conical flask containing 50ml of acid (at the chosen molar for this experiment) 5. Link the flask containing the reactants by placing it under the measuring cylinder and in the bung at the top of the conical flask. 6. As the Co2 is produced, the water will be forced out of the cylinder and we will be able to measure the speed of the reaction. 7. Repeat 3 times, recording the volume of CO2 every ten seconds. 8. Work out mean average for every 10 seconds with the acid at 1, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2 molar. The final reaction should look something like the below diagram: Measuring cylinder Water glass tube CO2 HCl Tank Marble chips Results 1 molar 0.8 molar Time Mean volume of CO2 Rate of reaction Gradient Time Mean volume of CO2 Rate of reaction Gradient 10 12 1.2 10 9 0.9 20 22 1.1 20 ...read more.

Conclusion

1. I could have made sure the surface area of the chips was always the same as this might have made a small imperfection on my results. 2. The first few seconds of the experiment were inaccurate as a large amount of gas escaped as I was fastening the bung to the conical flask, if I was to repeat the experiment I would need to find a way of adding the chips without the loss of gas. 3. There were some impurities in the water added to the acid which could have affected the results. 4. In all the reactions the amount of result recorded were restricted by the volume of the measuring cylinder and the amount of time set (100 seconds). This means I cannot prove my prediction that after a certain amount of time all the reactants would run out and the reaction would end. If I were to repeat the experiment I would set larger boundaries for the results. 5. The measuring of the CO2 was inaccurate as it took several seconds to record results and the accuracy of the readings was inaccurate. To get an accurate reading the C02 would have to be measured electronically. Conclusion From the above results I can say that the concentration of acid is directly proportional to the rate of reaction. This is because there are more reactant particles in a concentrated solution so the possibility of a reaction is increased. By Joe Howard ...read more.

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