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Rate of Reaction Between Nitric Acid and Marble Chips

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Introduction

Chemistry coursework Plan Aim: To find out if concentration affects the rate of a reaction. To investigate this aim, I will find out how the concentration of Nitric acid affects the rate of reaction on marble chips by doing an experiment. Prediction: I predict that the more the concentrated the acid in the solution, the faster the rate of reaction, so if I have twice the amount of concentration I will have twice the rate. (2 X concentration = 2 X rate). I have predicted this because in gases and liquids, particles are in constant motion, and to react, the particles collide and a successful reaction happens, so if there is a higher concentration in a reaction, there are more particles to collide and react, so more chances of a successful reaction. Since there are more collisions, the reaction takes place faster. If there is twice as much concentration, there should be twice the number of particles and twice the amount of collisions, so twice the reaction rate. ...read more.

Middle

The chips need to be of length 1cm, width 0.8 cm and depth 0.25 cm. This gives roughly the same surface area. Here are the results I got: Concentration 30secs 60 secs 90 secs 2 mol 25 34 60 1 mol 14 19 37 0.5 mol 9 15 23 0.4 mol 5 11 17 0.3 mol 2 3 13 The first concentration of nitric acid will be 2.0 mol (100ml acid) as this is the bench strength, and no water. The fifth concentration was planned to be 0.3 mol but this reaction was too slow and would not give the right range so it was changed to 0.4 mol (20ml acid). So now the five concentrations will be: 2.0 mol (100ml acid, no water), 2g calcium carbonate 1.6 mol (80ml acid, 20 ml water), 2g calcium carbonate 1.2 mol (60ml acid, 40 ml water), 2g calcium carbonate 0.8 mol (40 ml acid, 60 ml water), 2g calcium carbonate 0.4 mol (20ml acid, 80 ml water), 2g calcium carbonate I will measure each experiment for 30 seconds, 60 seconds and then 90 seconds, because just doing ...read more.

Conclusion

The other variables I need to control are: The temperature - I will control this by using a thermometer. If I don't control this the rate will increase or decrease and will affect my results making my experiment unfair. Other catalysts - I will make sure no other substances get into my experiment. If they do the rate could increase and make the experiment unfair. Surface area - I will measure each marble chip's dimensions to get the same area. I could also use powder to keep it the same. If some chips have a larger surface area than others the rate of reaction will be faster, even if the concentration is the same so again my experiment will be unfair and the results wrong. I will also need to be accurate, so be very careful and do things 3 times for accuracy. I will need to set up the apparatus correctly and make sure it is the same for each experiment I do. The bung needs to be securely fastened on the conical flask so as to let no carbon dioxide leaks out, and the gas syringe held up properly using the retort stand. Jasbir Golan 10.5 ...read more.

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