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rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

RATE OF REACTION BETWEEN SODIUM THIOSULPHATE AND HYDROCHLORIC ACID Aim: To investigate the rate of reaction between a fixed amount of sodium Thiosulphate and different concentrations of hydrochloric acid. Theory: The factors affecting the rate of reaction are - * Surface area of the reactants * Concentration of the reactants * Temperature at which the reaction occurs * Light * Use of catalyst The definition of collision theory as stated in www.wikipedia.org 'the collision theory assumes that for a reaction to occur the reactant particles must collide, but only a certain fraction of the total collisions, which are called effective collisions, cause the transformation of reactant molecules into products. This is due to the fact that only a fraction of the molecules have sufficient energy and the right orientation at the moment of impact to break the existing bonds and form new bonds. The minimal amount of energy needed so that the molecule is transformed is called activation energy' Therefore an increase in the concentration of the reactants would increase the chances of collision between particles which is also called the collision frequency. ...read more.

Middle

- Start the stopwatch as soon as you pour the hydrochloric acid into the sodium thiosulphate. Stop the watch as soon as the cross on the paper disappears completely. Safety hazards and precautions: - Hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate are corrosive in nature. Make sure that you wash your hands immediately if you come in contact with the two chemicals. - All chemicals cause irritation in the eye if they come in contact with it. To prevent any eye injury, make sure that you wear safety goggles to protect your eye. DATA COLLECTION AND RESULTS Volume of sodium thiosulphate (cm3) Concentration of Hydrochloric acid (mol/dm3) Average Time taken for the reaction to finish (seconds) Uncertainty (seconds) Observations 50 0.1 47 2 A very slow reaction. Takes a lot of time to make the cross disappear in comparison to higher concentrations. Moreover the solution turns light yellow. It gives off very little heat. 50 0.5 30 2 A faster reaction in comparison but still takes a lot of time. It turns into a darker solution than the lower concentration. It gives off more heat in comparison. 50 1 23 2 A faster reaction than the 0.5 molar concentrations. ...read more.

Conclusion

So therefore there will be more collisions taking place, therefore the reactants have a greater chance of reacting. There could be minimal errors on the experiment as the concentrations could possibly not be accurate. But to conclude we can say that as the concentration increases, time taken for the reaction to finish will be lesser. Sources of errors: - The readings may not have been completely accurate because they could not be taken exactly at the eye level. - The apparatus was not totally dry when we started using it causing an unexpected dilution to occur. - There may be a little inaccuracy in the graph readings since the smooth curves are drawn by hand. - When the HCl is poured into the conical flask, the stopwatch is started only after a minor delay. It is also stopped after a small time interval when we see that the cross has disappeared completely. - The apparatus might not be in the best use. Improvements: * It should be made sure that the apparatus is in best use. * No parallax errors should occur and all readings should be taken accurately. * The stopwatch should be started accurately and therefore anomalies would be avoided. 1 ...read more.

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