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Rate of Reaction Chemistry Coursework

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The effect of temperature on rate of reaction Introduction Our investigation in rate of reaction involved us performing an experiment which involved us chemically reacting hydrochloric acid and magnesium. Different reactants cause different speeds and chemical reactions can vary from a small reaction to a large reaction. Reactions occur when particles of reactants collide together and react. The chemical reaction that we will be performing is: Magnesium+ Hydrochloric Acid� Magnesium Chloride+ Hydrogen Through this reaction I will be measuring the amount of hydrogen that is produced. I will have to choose certain apparatus and a certain method which I will test in preliminary and then perform in my method. Preliminary Investigations Variables Temperature- The higher the temperature, the faster the rate of reaction. This happens because at higher temperatures the particles have more energy meaning that they collide more with each other because the particles are moving around quicker. If you imagine a box of balls, if the balls have more energy they are moving faster and are more likely to bump into each other than balls with less energy and are moving slower. We can measure temperature in our experiment by heating the hydrochloric acid at different temperatures and measuring how much hydrogen is produced. This is the variable I will be changing and is going to be the thing I will be testing. So this variable will be allowed to change however I must still make sure that I have it at the correct temperature. Concentration- The higher the concentration, the faster the rate of reaction. This is because there are more particles in the same amount of space. This leads to more collisions and more reactions. I can use this by changing the amount of hydrochloric acid and measuring how much hydrogen is produced. This variable in my experiment must stay the same, if I want to achieve reliable results. ...read more.

Middle

Here are the different temperatures we will be testing: 20�C 30�C 40�C 50�C 60�C 8) Whilst the hydrochloric acid is in the water bath measure out 0.2 grams of magnesium using the scales- The scales are used to get a accurate measurement of the magnesium that we will be using. The amount of magnesium stays the same and we must make sure that we only use 1 strip of magnesium to keep the surface area the same. 9) Put the thermometer in the hydrochloric acid to make sure that it is at the correct temperature- We use the thermometer to make sure that it is at the correct temperature for our experiment. If it is not at the correct temperature then our results could look strange and would be wrong. 10) Then put the 0.2grams of magnesium into the reaction flask and pour the hydrochloric acid once it is at the correct temperature. You must then put the lid with the delivery tube on immediately and start the stopwatch- When doing this you must make sure that you use 0.2 grams for all tests and must only use two strips of magnesium for all tests. You do this to keep a fair test. 11) You then check how much water is left in the burette after every twenty seconds for two minutes- You do this as this is how we can check the rate of reaction and this is why we use the stopwatch, it is easy to use and is much more accurate than counting in your head. You then repeat the steps but each time you use a different temperature. Results Water Displaced Temperature 20 Seconds 40 seconds 60 seconds 80 seconds 100 seconds 120 seconds 20�C 10ml 14ml 20ml 25ml 28ml 30ml 30�C 14ml 24ml 30ml 31ml 31ml 33ml 40�C 14ml 20ml 30ml 34ml 35ml 37ml 50�C 21ml 32ml 40ml 41ml 43ml 44ml 60�C 25ml 37ml 44ml 48ml 50ml 50ml Water Displaced Temperature 20 Seconds 40 Seconds 60 Seconds 80 Seconds ...read more.

Conclusion

After we performed the repeat we got a lot better set of results and the graph we drew was a lot better. We initially did plan to get a set of results which included a repeat for every temperature however we did not have enough time. Time is always a key issue for chemists who are trying to get a new scientific discovery. Whether it is for a major discovery or if it is just for a small experiment like we did. Chemists are always pushed for time because if you get your discovery out first that will mean more profit and a lot more publicity, so chemists are always trying to get the evidence as quick as they can. It isn't exactly the same for us however it is an example of how chemists can be pushed for time. Conclusion I think to conclude we could say that the results that we have got defiantly show a positive correlation that as the temperature increases the rate of reaction increases. Although there are weaknesses in the data that we have got, with the major one that we haven't performed more repeats which makes our evidence less reliable. I do think that the conclusion that I made is defiantly shown in the results and matches that of what I already knew through my scientific understanding of the collision theory. If we were to make these results stronger we would have to perform more repeats so that we have evidence that is strong enough to be giving as evidence for the conclusion. I also feel it would have been good to take some measurements at higher temperatures to see if the results still matched that off the earlier results taken. This is a thing that if I was to do again I would have done to increase the strength of these results. I feel that this experiment worked well and we have the base for a solid set of results. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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4 star(s)

This is well written laboratory report. The evaluation and analysis are good. The main improvements would be the collection of more data and an improvement in the scientific theory discussed within the introduction. The report shows good structure and a sound scientific understanding.

Marked by teacher Cornelia Bruce 18/04/2013

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