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Rate of Reaction CW

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction Magnesium sulphate is commonly used as an anti inflammatory agent. A local company which produces this has had a large quantity ordered for a date quite soon and they have asked me to help them. Magnesium sulphate can be made by using ordinary magnesium metal. The company have asked me to find if I can find a way for this to be made as cost efficient as possible. Planning The Collision Theory To help me explain the collision I am going to use information from "Chemistry Made Clear" by Gallagher and Ingram. In order for a reaction to occur the particles must meet and the collision must occur with enough energy. In the reaction I am investigating, the making of magnesium sulphate, the magnesium atoms and hydrogen ions must collide with enough energy to successfully react. Below are some diagrams to help show this: The word equation for this reaction is below: The symbol equation for this is below: If there are many successful collisions i.e. the reaction goes quickly then a lot of hydrogen will be produced i.e. the rate of reaction is fast. However if there isn't enough energy to carry out the reaction then the hydrogen ion will bounce off and nothing will happen. Acid Theory When an acid dissolves in water the acid molecule splits up and hydrogen ions and anions are formed. Their quantity is different depending on the acid. If all the molecules of the acid split up completely then the acid will have a very acidic pH number. We know all acids contain hydrogen, but strong acids have a high concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) per dm3. H2SO4 2H+ + SO42- Due to the fact the hydrogen ions are in a solution then, as the particulate theory matter tells us, the ions will be moving randomly throughout the solution. Some will hit the metal. If the ions that hit the metal have enough energy then a chemical reaction will occur and the metal will lose electrons which become metal cations. ...read more.

Middle

As well as this I will stop the clock as soon as the magnesium has completely dissolved as this is when the reaction is over. Each different concentration shall have results taken twice to not only find an average time but to see if there has been an error. If an error has occurred I shall repeat the experiment a third time to find out which of my two previous times is incorrect. Also I shall have to make sure the controlled variables I mentioned earlier are kept the same throughout, i.e. The temperature of both liquid shall have to be kept the same, as will the total volume of the acid solution. I will have to make sure that all the pieces of magnesium ribbon are as close to one centimetre as I can possibly make them. The hardest variable I will have to keep the same shall be the constant swirling as it will be hard to keep it the same speed as the time before. All of the above have to be followed to make this experiment a fair test. Obtaining Evidence My Table of Results Volume of Sulphuric Acid cm3 Volume of Water cm3 Concentration of Sulphuric acid g per dm3 Time1 s Time2 s Average Time s (Rounded) Rate of Reaction s-1 Rate of Reaction x 1000 s-1 25 0 25x100=100 25 17.28 14.54 16 1 =0.0625 16 62.5 23 2 23x100=92 25 18.78 17.78 18 1 =0.0555 18 55.5 18 7 18x100=72 25 29.69 28.84 29 1 =0.03448 29 34.48 16 9 16x100=64 25 40.84 39.90 40 1 =0.025 40 25 10 15 10x100=40 25 112 113 113 1 =0.008849 113 8.85 The above is my filled in table of results. All the times are my original times and as they seem quite consistent I felt no need to have to repeat an experiment. I calculated the concentration by using the following calculation: Volume of sulphuric acid x100=Concentration Volume of water and acid i.e. ...read more.

Conclusion

Other Apparatus Conical Flask- I feel a wider necked conical flask may have been better, as the piece of magnesium had a tendency to get stuck in the neck of the conical flask. Scissors- I don't really fell these were adequate in conjunction with a ruler to measure the strips of magnesium off with as I had to scratch the 1cm lengths on the piece of magnesium with these and then remove the ruler to cut the magnesium. What would I do differently? If I had to repeat this experiment there are several things I would do differently. First of all I would use a magnetic stirring device instead of swirling the solution by hand which would remove the possibility of error. Second of all, in conjunction with the magnetic stirrer I would use a beaker as there would be no need to worry about the acid spilling over the side with the magnetic stirrer. This would also mean the piece of magnesium couldn't get stuck as the beaker has a very wide neck. Finally, I would have used some fresh, powered magnesium. This would mean there would be no oxide layer to worry about. Also I would by able to measure it accurately with a scale which could eliminate error that I could have got from having to use a ruler and scissors. Advice to the Medicine Company I would advise the company to conduct some large scale tests to find which concentration of sulphuric acid would be safe, as to speed up their reactions I am sure they would use other factors which would increase the rate of reaction; which with a high concentration of acid could cause an unstable reaction. An idea for the distribution of magnesium sulphate would be in the form of wipes which are easy to transport. The magnesium sulphate could be soaked into the wipes which would also prevent any magnesium sulphate being lost in the process because if any remained, it would be absorbed when more material is added. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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