• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Rate of reaction investigation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Rate of reaction investigation Introduction In reactions involving only gases, an increase in the overall pressure at which the reaction is carried out increases the rate of reaction. The increase in pressure resulted in the gas particles being pushed closer together. This meant that they collided more often and so they reacted faster. A chemical reaction is a process by which one or more substances called reactants changes into one or more other substances, called products. A reaction is when two particles (reactants) join to form a new product or products. Rate is a measurement of the change that happens in a single unit of time, any suitable measurement can be used such as seconds, minutes, hours or even days. A rate of a chemical reaction is how fast the reactants react. In general, to find the rate of reaction, you should measure either the amount of reactant used up per unit of time. This investigation is about the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction. The equations of this investigation: Calcium Carbonate (Marble) + Hydrochloric Acid--> Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide Here are the four methods that can use to measure the rate. Method 1 Method 2 Method 3 In method 1 is a water displacement method; the rate of the reaction can be measured by using the measuring cylinder. As the water go down, this mean the carbon dioxide is displacing the water. There are another way of measure is that we can court the number of CO2 bubbles but this is hard to measure because the bubbles could be large or small. In method 2 is a gas syringe method, the rate of reaction can be measure by the gas syringe. The carbon dioxide can be collect by gas syringe. In method 3is mass loss method, as the carbon dioxide is given out, the mass of it will reduce. ...read more.

Middle

Although these factors will affect the end result so long as they are kept constant throughout then it should not matter too much. To get the best possible results I need to use the equipment in the best possible way, I could twist the gas syringe back and forth so as not to get the syringe stuck, which would affect my results. I will need three readings for each concentration and later if I need to repeat any experiments I can. An important point is that I must use the right amount of acid and the best sized amount of marbles. I did an experiment beforehand to give an idea as to what to do in our investigation. It was the reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid. This was a very good thing to do because it showed me how to use the equipment properly and safely and gave an idea as to what was to come. Fair Test To ensure that our results were accurate and reliable my group and I had to take into consideration the following points. 1. The fact that each marble chip had its own surface area, which could have affected our results. To try and over come this problem we used chips that weren't too big, yet weren't too small so that the surface area only differed a little. 2. The hydrochloric acid used was of the same molar solution for all experiments. 3. We repeated the experiments three times and then found the average of our results. 4. The apparatus used was the same for all experiments to ensure that the experiments were fair. 5. The temperature was kept changing within each experiment. 6. And lastly we used a more accurate measuring cylinder, so our results would be reliable. Each time I repeat the experiment I will keep the surface area of the marble chips, amount of acid used and the amount of carbon dioxide to be collected the same. ...read more.

Conclusion

Reading Error: The error due to the guesswork involved in taking a reading from a scale when the reading lies between the scale divisions. The amount of marble chip I put in each experiment are not the same. Although I am using the medium size of marble chip but there are also some powdered chip on it, so it makes the experiment unfair which affect the accuracy of the results I get from the experiment. Therefore, to ensure the result is accurate, I will weight the marble chip every time I do the experiment. Also to make my result more accurate, I compared my readings to someone else reading from the class. I also made an average from my 3 result which will make my result more reliable. The experiments were fair tests to a certain extent but there was a certain margin of error because the results recorded were only to the nearest cm� and the values of the controlled variables were not exact amounts so the may have been slightly differently each time which would have affected slightly the reliability of the results. This would have made little difference to the results though as the volume of gas was only measured to the nearest cm. I think that there were enough evidence for me to drawup the conclusion. To improved my experiment and make my result more accurate, I will increase every 5 degree to do the experiment and also I will extend experiment by changing the surface area and keeping the temperatures the same to investigate the effect of surface area on the rate of reaction because if I do that, I can have a strong evidence to support my prediction. Furthermore, I will change the concentration used so that I can see the effect of the concentration on rate of reaction which can help me to support my prediction. Moreover, I will use different catalyst because different catalyst has different effect on the rate of reaction. Martin Man 11O ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    In this investigation we are going to measure the rate of reaction of marble ...

    3 star(s)

    being greater than the other two; consequently this result will be discarded and not used in calculating averages. Results for 1M HCl: Medium Marble (CaCO3) 1M HCl Volume of CO2 /cm� Time (s) Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Average Range 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  2. Exothermic and endothermic reactions

    * The movement of the tectonic plate edges nearby dictates the sizes of these mountains, islands and trenches. Rock deformation We've seen what can happen to rocks on a large scale. Now we shall think about what can happen to smaller areas of rock.

  1. Free essay

    Close Your Eyes

    She didn't take any notice of it. "Danny what the fuck?" she said angrily. "Yesterday you were acting like a jealous twat causing the two of us to argue for the first time ever! And now your acting like nothings happened.

  2. Investigating the rate of a reaction

    * Complete all practical work standing, tucking chairs in, to ensure that in case acid is spilt, the person can move away quickly. * Keep the scalpel away from people and while walking hold the blade pointing towards the ground.

  1. Effects of Temperature On the Rate of Reaction When Energy In the Form of ...

    For the two chemicals to react, there must be collisions between their molecules. By increasing the pressure, we squeeze the molecules together so you will increase the frequency of collisions between them. This is collision theory again. In a diesel engine, compressing the gaseous mixture of air and diesel also increases the temperature enough to produce combustion.

  2. Enzyme Investigation.

    Vmax .A typical graph showing the rate of reaction when the concentration of the substrate is varied would therefore look like this:- Substrate Concentration (Cambridge Advanced Sciences Biology 1 Endorsed by OCR). In my experiment the amount of oxygen produced in the break down of hydrogen peroxide using catalase will be measured.

  1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter

    Therefore a higher proportion of the collisions are effective. Catalysts can also be used to slow down reactions. * Measure 100 ml of hydrochloric acid into a conical flask. * Half fill the container with water. * Fill the measuring cylinder with water and turn it up-side down in the container without letting any gas into the measuring cylinder.

  2. An Investigation: Factors That Affect The Rate Of Reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric ...

    This shows that medium chips are the best results so far. To make sure we have concluded the right decision we wanted to check if large calcium chips would make a stronger difference. Table 6. Evaluating results for large chips Calcium Large Chips 1.5g Hydrochloric Acid 2M 30ml Volume Of Gas Produced (ml)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work