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Rate of Reaction Lab Report

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

CHEMISTRY LAB REPORT Reaction Rate Investigation What is the relationship between the concentration of and the rate of reaction? Introduction What is reaction rate: The term 'reaction rate' is the speed at which a reaction happens. In other words, it is the time needed for all the molecules to combine together successfully. How will this be measured: This will be measured by the reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and hydrochloric acid with different concentration gradient. When the two react together, they change their colour to yellowish white and the time that takes the colour to change will be used to find out the reaction rate: as shown in the equation below, the faster the reactions is, the higher the reaction rate will be. The mathematical equation for reaction rate: Balanced equation for the experiment is: 1 Aim: -Research Question: What is the relationship between the concentration of and the rate of reaction? -Independent Variable: Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid -Dependent Variable: Rate of Reaction Hypothesis: My hypothesis is that if the concentration of hydrochloric acid increases, the rate of reaction will increase as well. Reason: This can be supported by the collision theory. When the concentration increases, there will be more molecules of hydrochloric acid to collide successfully with the molecules from sodium thiosulphate solution. ...read more.

Middle

(Also, remember to rinse the 100ml measuring cylinder for the hydrochloric acid between each experiment when the concentration is changed) Results Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Time of reaction during the First experiment (s) Time of reaction during the Second experiment (s) 2 moles/L 18.0 19.4 1 mole/L 20.1 19.7 0.5 moles/L 22.2 23.4 0.25 moles/L 26.4 24.6 Calculations First of all, the mean of the time of reaction for each hydrochloric acid should be found. The equation used is: Then using the equation in the introduction, this should be changed into the rate of reaction. The results will be rounded off to 4 decimal point so that the results are more accurate but not too detailed. The actual calulations: -2 moles Mean: ( 18.0 + 19.4 ) / 2 = 37.4 / 2 = 18.7 Rate of Reaction: 1 / 18.7 = 0.0535 (4 d.p) -1 mole Mean: ( 20.1 + 19.7 ) / 2 = 39.8 / 2 = 19.9 Rate of Reaction: 0.0503 (4 d.p) -0.25 moles Mean: ( 22.2 + 23.4) / 2 = 45.6 / 2 = 22.8 Rate of Reaction: 0.0439 (4 d.p) -0.5 moles Mean: (26.4 + 24.6 ) / 2 = 51.0 / 2 = 25.5 Rate of Reaction: 0.0392 (4 d.p) Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Mean of the time of reaction (s) ...read more.

Conclusion

I think that our results were quite reliable in general since there were no anomalous data and we followed procedures orderly. But the results could have been improved with the methods suggested above. Some other related possible experiments can be suggested by using one of the controlled variables as the independent variable. Since rate of reaction also depends on temperature and presence of catalyst, it would be nice to test them by using the same experiment. (The surface area is one of the factors affecting the reaction rate as well but it is more effective when one of the reactants is solid so it is not relevant in this case with liquid solutions) I would also remind the fact that for the following experiments the concentration of hydrochloric acid used should be the same all the time. Other Possible Experiments 1. What is the relationship between the presence of catalyst and the rate of reaction? -This can be done by putting different amount of catalyst in the hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate and measuring the time of reaction. 2. What is the relationship between temperature and the rate of reaction? -This can be done by putting the beaker of sodium thiosulphate in a hot bath with different temperature and measuring the time of reaction. 1 Saunders, Nigel. "Investigating the Rate of Reaction." Web. 30 Nov. 2010. <http://www.creative-chemistry.org.uk/gcse/documents/Sc1/rates.pdf>. 2 "Chem4Kids.com: Reactions: Rates of Reaction." Rader's CHEM4KIDS.COM. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. <http://www.chem4kids.com/files/react_rates.html>. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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