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Rate of reaction of hydrochloric acid on magnesium.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Science Coursework: Rate of Reaction The Aim of the experiment: In this experiment I will investigate the relationship between the concentration of the hydrochloric acid and the rate of a reaction. To find this out I will react different concentration of hydrochloric acid and magnesium, from there I will monitor the gas (hydrogen) produced and analyse the results. Prediction: I predict the higher the molarity of the hydrochloric acid the faster the rate of reaction therefore the quicker the gas will be produced in the specific time interval. Overview of the experiment: In this reaction two substances will be present in the solution, magnesium and hydrochloric acid. During the reaction magnesium particles will collide with the hydrochloric acid particles to produce the salt Mg chloride and hydrogen gas. The amount of gas will be monitored at certain time intervals to find out the rate of reaction. However I will be changing the molarity of the HCl by diluting it with water. The water molecules will prevent the Mg and HCl particles to collide, this is because the water molecules will get in the way of the collisions therefore providing an obstacle for the two reacting particle. This will have an influence on the rate of reaction it will make it slower. Background information: Magnesium is in the group 2 metals that are quite similar to group 1 metals in the periodic table, except that it has 2 electrons on its outer shell and forms 2+ ions, so in general Mg is quite reactive. This is because Mg can easily loose its 2 outer electrons, the result of this is that it will react rather vigorously as two different particles react. It is not enough for the particles to collide, the bonds between the atoms they have to be broken before new molecules can be produced. In liquids their particles are continually moving at various speeds, which then collide in different ways. ...read more.

Middle

This table shows the concentration I will be using for my experiment: Volume of 1M acid (cm3) Volume of water (cm3) Concentration of acid Solution (M) 30 70 0.3 40 60 0.4 50 50 0.5 60 40 0.6 70 30 0.7 Dependent and Independent variables: My dependent variable in this experiment will be the temperature and the dimension of the magnesium ribbon. The length of the Mg ribbon will be 8cm and the experiment will be held at room temperature this will be constant through out the whole experiment. In this experiment there will only be one independent variable this is the molarity of the hydrochloric acid. This is going to going to vary time to time in different stages in the experiment, this is because I will be investigating how this affects the rate of reaction. Prediction for Independent variable: In my experiment I will have the hydrochloric acid as the independent variable. I predict that if I decrease the molarity of the HCl then more time will be taken for the rate of reaction to occur. This is because fewer particles will be present in the solution so less chances of collisions taking place with the Mg particles, so the reaction will be slower. The way I will decrease the molarity of the HCl is by diluting a certain proportion of water into the hydrochloric acid while decreases the amount of HCl. As there will be fewer particles in lower concentrations of HCl then there will be a lower probability of the particles overcoming the activation energy, as it will be more difficult for the particles especially in room temperature to create a successful reaction. Safety precautions during the experiment; * Ensure all coats and bags are put to the side to prevent accidents (tripping), so the working area is tidy, * Wear safety goggles at all times during this experiment, * Be careful when handling chemicals, * Clean the surface area if spillage has occurred with a dry cloth, * Work at a steady pace to avoid accidents. ...read more.

Conclusion

This would interfere with the reaction giving the particles more kinetic energy therefore altering the hydrogen released. I could improve this situation by carrying out the experiment in a class with very few students, this would decrease body heat lost to the surroundings. All this said I still think very strongly that all my results are reliable and accurate enough as there were no anomalous points on either of my graphs as a result giving me a successful conclusion to rates of reaction. All my evidence that I had obtained from my experiment are accurate for instance my tables and graphs. I had recorded all the relevant information that I needed from my experiment onto a labelled table, which then I had created my graphs from. All my graphs approve that my evidence are accurate because neither of the graphs have an anomalous point even though some plots are slightly off the best fit line. So my evidence is sufficient to support the conclusion to this investigation. I would extend my investigation by carrying out more concentrations of HCl and maybe using other chemicals such as sodium thiosulphate to contrast the rate of reaction between the two. This would let me know how different chemicals influence the rate of reaction and this can also help me to compare the results, which would give me a far better conclusion. In order for this to happen I would have to keep everything constant for both the chemicals like the temperature and the amount of Mg ribbon. The exothermic reaction had affected the outcome of the reaction causing more collisions therefore making the results less accurate. If I placed the conical flask in a temperature controlled container it would improve the accuracy of gaining better results. If I had to repeat this experiment again I would perform it with the Burette method because I have found out that this method guaranties more reliable and accurate results so I would gain more precise graphs. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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