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# Rate of reaction when acid concentrations are varied.

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Introduction

Rate of reaction when acid concentrations are varied This experiment is to find out does the rate of reaction change when the acid concentration is increased or decreased when reacted with marble chips. Introduction Marble chips, when reacted with hydrochloric acid forms calcium chloride, water and carbon dioxide (Marble chips can also be called limestone or calcium carbonate) Normal equation 2HCl (aq) + CaCO3 (s) � CaCl (aq) + H2O(l) + CO2 (aq) Ionic CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) ? Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g)+ H2O(l) Word Hydrochloric acid + Calcium carbonate�Calcium Chloride + Water +Carbon dioxide The experiment can be controlled by a few factors, these affect the rate of reaction Factors Mass of chips - How much chips or how little chips. If there were more chips, the experiment will react longer Concentration of acid- How many moles/dm� there is in the acid. If the concentration is high, the rate of reaction will increase. Temperature- The higher the temperature there will be a faster the rate of reaction because of the kinetic theory. Volume of acid - How much acid. ...read more.

Middle

It has to be lightly because if it were too tight, the syringe would not be able to move freely. The nozzle of the syringe will be fitted with a glass tube feeding into a rubber bung, which will fit perfectly on top of the flask. Different concentrations of the acid will be made, as the total amount of liquid will be 25cm�, The 1st experiment will be of 25cm� of acid and 0cm� of water - 2 moles 2nd. 20cm� of acid and 5cm� of water - 1.6 moles 3rd .15cm� of acid and 10cm� of water - 1.2 moles 4th. 10cm� of acid and 15cm� of water - 0.8 moles 5th. 5cm� of acid and 20cm� of water - 0.4 moles For a control experiment there should be 0cm� of acid and 25cm� of water, a total of 0 moles of acid. This is to see that water does not increase the concentration of the acid. Using the measuring cylinder, I carefully measure out the different amounts to acid and water. ...read more.

Conclusion

. Equipment Clamp stand - to hold the gas syringe Conical flask - for the reaction to take place Beaker - to contain the acid Measuring cylinder - to measure out the acid Thermometer - to find out the room temperature at the start Gas syringe - to contain and measure how much gas Bung with glass tube - To feed the gas produced into the gas syringe Stopwatch - to see the time when taking down results Scales - to measure out the marble chips Polythene boat - to hold the chips while measured. Marble chips and dilute acid- for the experiment Safety Safety goggles need to be worn at all times, because the acid fizzes and bubbles. Some of the liquid might get flicked into anyone's eyes; acid is corrosive, especially towards our bodies. Table of results The results will be put into a table: Time in seconds 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Moles Acid Water 2 mol 25cm� 0cm� 1.6 mol 20cm� 5cm� 1.2 mol 15cm� 10cm� 0.8 mol 10cm� 15cm� 0.4 mol 5cm� 20cm� Gas loss in cm� Sources of information A basic knowledge of the collision theory and rate of reactions. Also backed up by Chemistry by Elleen Ramsdeen ...read more.

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