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Rates of Reaction.

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Chemistry Coursework Investigation: Rates of Reaction Task: To plan and conduct an investigation into the factors that affect the rate at which acid reacts with marble. Equipment: For this task we were granted the use of all the equipment the lab had to offer us. To start with however we were given this equipment: * 100 Cm3 Measuring Cylinder * Water trough * Dilute Hydrochloric acid solution ( 2 molar) * Marble Chips * Distilled Water * 250 Cm3 Conical flask * Test tube with side arm and delivery tube Aim: To find if changing the concentration of an acid will increase or decrease the rate of the reaction when marble reacts with hydrochloric acid. Preliminary Work: In our preliminary work we looked up what happened when HCl reacts with marble chips. Marble is a metamorphic rock, which is primarily made of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3). When CaCO3 reacts with Hydrochloric acid the following reaction takes place: CaCO3(s) ...read more.


To make measuring the concentration of the acid easier we decided to use 100 ml of acid as 100% concentration, therefore 90 ml of acid and 10 ml of distilled water would mean the acid was at 90% concentration. We decided we would see how long it took different concentrations of hydrochloric acid to form 100 ml of carbon dioxide gas with 20 g of marble chips. To make sure our experiment was a fair test we used exactly equal amounts of marble for each test, and repeated each test three times to make sure we got non-biased results. Results: The results collected from the three experiments are shown in a table below: Concentration in % Time in seconds and minuets (Expt. 1) (Expt. 2) (Expt. 3) Average 10% 1:16 1:14 1:17 1:15 20% 1:05 1:07 1:06 1:06 30% 60 60 1:01 60 40% 58 57 58 58 50% 41 43 45 43 60% 33 33 34 33 70% 29 30 31 30 80% 24 24 25 24 90% 20 21 21 20.6 100% 19 19 19 19 I have also added a graph to show these results. ...read more.


Evaluation: I think that this experimental procedure was useful to demonstrate my original prediction. It worked very well and I was pleased with the set of results I obtained. This is because they showed clearly the change in reaction rates dependant upon the concentration of acid. I do think that the results were accurate because I did everything three times and there were no truly anomalous results meaning that the reaction was the same each time I carried it out. The shape of the graph was smooth enough for me to state that it showed a good change in the rate of reaction. To improve this experiment I would record the time taken to produce each Cm3 of gas rather than just the time taken to produce 100Cm3. This would allow me to see the rate of reaction much more clearly.Shown below is an estimated table of results of the time taken to produce 10Cm3 of gas ...read more.

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